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Peer-reviewed articles

2020

Bitton,E., Elder,M., Srinivasan,S., Luensmann,D., Jones,L. Dry Eye Disease in University-based Clinics in Canada: A Retrospective Chart Review Optometry & Vision Science 2020;97(11):944-953 [ Show Abstract ]

SIGNIFICANCE
Dry eye disease (DED) imposes a substantial burden on patients, which can lead to significant economic consequences for society. We provide insights into the DED patient population and DED diagnostic/management practices in Canada, which to date have been inadequately addressed in the literature.

PURPOSE
The purpose of this study was to describe DED patient demographic/clinical characteristics alongside DED diagnosis/management in university-based optometry clinics in Canada.

METHODS
This was a retrospective chart review of nonconcurrent non-Sjögren patients with DED at two university-based optometry clinics in Montreal and Waterloo. Waterloo charts with a diagnosis of DED and all charts from the Montreal dry eye clinic were considered for inclusion.

RESULTS
Overall, 200 charts were reviewed. Most patients were female (Montreal, 76%; Waterloo, 72%), and the mean age was 57.2 ± 14.9 years at Montreal and 52.6 ± 20.1 years at Waterloo. Patients commonly reported multiple health conditions (e.g., allergies [Montreal, 44%; Waterloo, 36%]), and high use of systemic nonocular medications was observed (Montreal, 76%; Waterloo, 62%). Clinical signs and symptoms of DED were recorded more often in Montreal patients than in Waterloo patients (e.g., dryness symptoms, 100 vs. 72%; tear breakup time, 100 vs. 60%). Warm compresses (Montreal, 63%; Waterloo, 83%) and artificial tears (Montreal, 94%; Waterloo, 96%) were the most frequently recommended nonmedical treatment and ocular lubricant, respectively. Topical steroids were the most frequently prescribed medications (Montreal, 22%; Waterloo, 21%), with typically three to four different interventions recommended per patient at each clinic. No relationship was found between symptoms and clinical signs or recommended interventions.

CONCLUSIONS
This retrospective chart review provided the demographics, clinical characteristics, diagnosis, and management options for DED patients in Canadian university-based optometry clinics. The more comprehensive assessments conducted at Montreal may be beneficial to better monitor the progression of DED and to determine treatment effects over time.

Tichenor,A,, Cofield,S., Gann,D., Elder,M., Ng,A. Y., Walsh,K., Jones,L., Nichols,J. Frequency of Contact Lens Complications Between Contact Lens Wearers Using Multipurpose Solutions Versus Hydrogen Peroxide in the United States and Canada Eye & Contact Lens 2020;Online ahead of print [ Show Abstract ]

Objectives: To retrospectively compare frequency of contact lens (CL) complications in soft CL users of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and multipurpose solutions (MPS).

Methods: This was a multicenter, retrospective chart review of CL records from each patient's three most recent eye examinations at academic and private practices. Patients must have used the same solution type for at least 3 years. Univariate analyses were conducted using t tests, and chi-square or Fisher's exact test for categorical measures.

Results: There were 1,137 patients included, with 670 (59%) using MPS and 467 (41%) H2O2. In total, 706 (62%) experienced at least one complication; 409 used MPS and 297 used H2O2. There was no difference in the proportion of patients experiencing at least one complication between MPS (61%) and H2O2 (64%) (P=0.38). Multipurpose solutions users were more likely to report discomfort compared with H2O2 users (P=0.04). Presumed microbial keratitis was experienced by 16 MPS and nine H2O2 users (P=0.60).

Conclusions: No significant differences were found in the frequency of CL complications between MPS and H2O2. H2O2 users were less likely to report discomfort and thus switching to a H2O2 system may be an alternative in CL users with discomfort.

Scientific Presentations

2019

Bitton E, Srinivasan S, Elder M, Luensmann D, Jones L. Dry Eye Disease (DED) in Canada: A retrospective chart review American Academy of Optometry, Orlando, 2019 [ Show Abstract ]

Purpose: Dry eye disease (DED) is a complex and common condition across populations, with an estimated prevalence ranging between 5 and 50%, affecting females more than males. While numerous epidemiological studies exist, few have focused on DED in a Canadian population. The objective of this retrospective study was to describe the demographic and clinical characteristics of DED patients in University-based optometric clinics in Canada.

Methods: Charts of patients with DED were randomly reviewed at the University of Waterloo (UW) using ICD-9 diagnostic codes and at the dry eye clinic, University of Montreal (UM), which only accepts DED referrals. Demographics, health history, symptoms, diagnostic and management options were evaluated.

Results: 200 charts (100/clinic) were reviewed. The cohorts examined were broadly similar, consisting of similar ages (UM 57±15; UW 53±20yrs), were mainly female (76% UM, 72% UW) and used systemic medications frequently (76% UM; 62% UW). Symptom scores (0-100) by OSDI (ocular surface disease index) were: 38 UM; 33 UW. Clinical tests included TBUT (4.9sec UM; 3.9sec UW), cotton thread test (21mm UM; 20mm UW), positive corneal staining (46% UM; 68% UW). Recommended therapies included artificial tears (94% UM; 96% UW), warm compresses (63% UM; 83% UW), lid hygiene (29% UM; 22% UW), and Omega 3 supplementation (47% UM; 42% UW).

Conclusion: This review supports the literature that DED is typically seen with higher age, in females, and patients with systemic disease who use medications which can contribute to iatrogenic DED. No clear association was found between symptoms and signs, underlining the complexity of DED.

Tichenor A, Cofield S, Gann D, Elder M, Ng AY, Walsh K, Jones L, Nichols J. Frequency of contact lens complications between contact lens wearers using multipurpose solutions versus hydrogen peroxide in the United States and Canada American Academy of Optometry, Orlando, 2019 [ Show Abstract ]

Purpose: To retrospectively compare frequency and likelihood of contact lens complications in long-term soft contact lens (CL) users of hydrogen peroxide (PXD) and multipurpose solutions (MPS).

Methods: This was a multicenter, retrospective chart review study of soft CL patient records. The study was conducted at two academic clinic sites, the University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Optometry and CORE, School of Optometry & Vision Science, University of Waterloo, and across five private practice clinical sites (three in the US and two in Canada). Records of established, adult soft CL wearers were reviewed from the three most recent full examination visits. Patients must have used the same CL solution technology (either MPS or PXD) documented at the first and last visit for at least three years. Data collected included demographics, CL solution, and any complications for either eye. Univariate analyses were conducted using Chi-Square or Fisher’s Exact test for categorical measures, as applicable. Covariate adjusted logistic regression models were used for categorical outcomes using Likelihood Ratio Chi-Square Test.

Results: In total, there were 1137 subjects included across the seven clinical locations, with 670 (59%) MPS users and 467 (41%) PXD users. The MPS users were 57% female with a mean (±SD) age of 42.9 (±14.7) years. The PXD users were 43% female with a mean age of 43.2
(±14.2) years. At the academic clinic sites, 428 records (38%) were reviewed of which 244 (57%) were MPS users. At the private practice sites, 709 records (62%) were reviewed and 426 (60%) were MPS users. Of all subjects, 706 (62%) experienced at least one complication over three visits; 409 were MPS users and 297 were PXD users. The most common complication was papillae (n=311, 27%) followed by hyperemia (n=242, 21%) and discomfort (n=240, 21%).There was no difference in the proportion of subjects experiencing at least one complication over the three visits between MPS (61%) and PXD (64%) users (p=0.38). Nonetheless, MPS users were more likely to report discomfort at least one time over the three visits compared to PXD users (p=0.04). Infectious keratitis was experienced by 25 subjects (2%); 19 were MPS users and 9 were PXD users (p=0.60).

Conclusion: While no differences were found in the frequency of contact lens complications between MPS and PXD users, the ocular surface health benefits of PXD should be considered when determining the best lens care option for patients. In addition, MPS users were more likely to report low levels of discomfort at least once over the time period reviewed. Therefore, PXD may be a beneficial solution alternative in CL users who report discomfort.

Professional Publications

2018

Elder M. Evaluation of Interprofessional Education and Collaboration in Optometry ContactLensUpdate.com 2018

Elder M, Srinivasan S. Tear Osmolarity: an overview Optician 2018;257, 6637: 30-33

Elder M, Srinivasan S. Meibography overview Optician 2018;257, 6634: 26-30

Elder M, Srinivasan S, Jones L. Tear ferning: an overview Optician 2018;258, 6671: 29-32

2017

Elder M. Summary: Epidemiology report ContactLensUpdate.com 2017

Elder M, Srinivasan S, Jones L. A new look at tears Optician 2017, June 2nd: 34-36