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Peer-reviewed articles

2021

Bai,Y., Ngo,W., Khanal,S., Nichols,K. K., Nichols,J. J. Human precorneal tear film and lipid layer dynamics in meibomian gland dysfunction Ocular Surface 2021;Online ahead of print [ Show Abstract ]

Purpose: To evaluate the precorneal tear film (PCTF) and lipid layer (TFLL) thicknesses and thinning rates in meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) using a combined ultra-high-resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT) and thickness dependent fringe (TDF) interferometry system.

Methods: Based on the Tear Film and Ocular Surface Society (TFOS) International Workshop on Meibomian Gland Dysfunction diagnostic algorithm, the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) and meibum grade score (MGS) were used to classify subjects into four groups: Normal (OSDI<13 and MGS<10), MGD (OSDI≥13 and MGS≥10), Asymptomatic MGD (OSDI<13 and MGS≥10), and Mixed (OSDI≥13 and MGS<10). The OCT/TDF system was used to capture PCTF and TFLL thicknesses and thinning rates. Kruskal-Wallis was used to compare median PCTF and TFLL thicknesses and thinning rates.

Results: There were 190 subjects categorized into four groups: Normal (n = 63), MGD (n = 51), Asymptomatic MGD (n = 29), and Mixed (n = 47). The PCTF was significantly thinner in the Mixed group (3.3 [1.2]) than in the Normal (p < 0.001), MGD (p < 0.001) and Asymptomatic MGD (p = 0.009) groups. Relative to the Normal (4.5 [4.5] μm/min) and Mixed (5.0 [2.0] μm/min) groups, the rate of PCTF thinning was faster in the MGD (8.1 [3.0] μm/min, both p < 0.001) and Asymptomatic MGD (6.9 [3.1] μm/min, p = 0.009 and p = 0.04, respectively) groups. The correlation between PCTF thinning rate and TFLL thickness was ρ = −0.46, p < 0.001.

Conclusions: Symptomatic and asymptomatic MGD shows rapid PCTF thinning rates (evaporation), while the PCTF thickness was reduced in mixed disease. Thicker lipid layers were associated with slower PCTF thinning.

Chan,V. W. Y., Phan,C-M., Ngo,W., Jones,L. Lysozyme Deposition on Contact Lenses in an In Vitro Blink-Simulation Eye Model Versus a Static Vial Deposition Model Eye & Contact Lens 2021;47(7):388-393 [ Show Abstract ]

Purpose:
To evaluate active lysozyme deposition on daily disposable (DD) contact lenses (CL) using a novel in vitro blink model.

Methods:
Three conventional hydrogel DD CL materials (etafilcon A, omafilcon A, nelfilcon A) and three silicone hydrogel DD CL materials (delefilcon A, senofilcon A, somofilcon A) were tested. The device blink rate was set to 6 blinks/min with a tear flow rate of 1 μL/min using an artificial tear solution (ATS) containing lysozyme and other typical tear film components. After incubation at 2, 4, or 8 hr, lenses were removed, and lysozyme activity was measured. A separate experiment was conducted with lenses incubated in a static vial containing 480 μL of ATS.

Results:
Etafilcon A deposited significantly higher amounts of active lysozyme (402±102 μg/lens) than other lens materials after 8 hr (P<0.0001). Etafilcon A had a higher amount of active lysozyme using the blink model compared with the static vial (P=0.0435), whereas somofilcon A (P=0.0076) and senofilcon A (P=0.0019) had a higher amount of lysozyme activity in the vial compared with the blink model.

Conclusion:
The blink model can be tuned to provide quantitative data that closely mimics ex vivo studies and can be used to model deposition of lysozyme on CL materials.

Downie,L. E., Bandlitz,S., Bergmanson,J. P. G., Craig,J. P., Dutta,D., Maldonado-Codina,C., Ngo,W., Sowjanya Siddireddy,J., Wolffsohn,J. S. CLEAR - Anatomy and physiology of the anterior eye Contact Lens Anterior Eye 2021;44(2):132-156 [ Show Abstract ]

A key element of contact lens practice involves clinical evaluation of anterior eye health, including the cornea and limbus, conjunctiva and sclera, eyelids and eyelashes, lacrimal system and tear film. This report reviews the fundamental anatomy and physiology of these structures, including the vascular supply, venous drainage, lymphatic drainage, sensory innervation, physiology and function. This is the foundation for considering the potential interactions with, and effects of, contact lens wear on the anterior eye. This information is not consistently published as academic research and this report provides a synthesis from all available sources. With respect to terminology, the report aims to promote the consistent use of nomenclature in the field, and generally adopts anatomical terms recommended by the Federative Committee for Anatomical Terminology. Techniques for the examination of the ocular surface are also discussed.

Huynh,C. B., Ngo,W. Quantifying the Effect of Spectacle Frame Dimensions on Wind-Induced Ocular Plane Evaporation Using an in Vitro Model Eye & Contact Lens 2021;47(347):351 [ Show Abstract ]

Purpose: To quantify the effect of spectacle frame dimensions on wind-induced ocular plane evaporation.

Methods: A drop of 0.5 μL water was pipetted onto an eye of a mannequin head. The face was fitted with a spectacle frame. A fan positioned 10 cm away directed air (185 CFM) toward the face and the time required for the drop to evaporate was recorded. This procedure was repeated with 31 different frames to obtain evaporation times for various eye sizes, vertical heights, vertex distances, temperature, and humidity. This was also repeated 30 times without spectacle wear to obtain evaporation times for various temperature and humidity conditions.

Results: Spectacle wear increased evaporation times compared with nonspectacle wear, in both high (>35%) and low humidity (<30%) conditions (both P<0.01). Humidity was correlated with evaporation time, regardless of spectacle and nonspectacle wear (both P<0.01). Evaporation time did not correlate with spectacle eye size, vertical height, or vertex distance (all P≥0.21).

Conclusion: This study showed that spectacle wear guarded against wind-induced evaporation at the ocular plane compared with nonspectacle wear. However, once spectacles were worn, eye size, vertical height, and vertex distance were not correlated with evaporation times. Humidity drove evaporation independent of spectacle wear.

Khanal,S., Ngo,W., Nichols,K. K., Wilson,L., Barnes,S., Nichols,J. J. Human meibum and tear film derived (O-acyl)-omega-hydroxy fatty acids in meibomian gland dysfunction Ocular Surface 2021;21(July):118-128 [ Show Abstract ]

Purpose: The molecular basis of the tear film and lipid layer alterations in meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) is unknown. This study aimed to identify and compare (O-acyl)-omega-hydroxy fatty acids (OAHFAs) derived from human meibum and tears in MGD. Methods: Of 195 eligible subjects (18–84 years, 62.6% female), 183 and 174 provided samples for tears and meibum, respectively. Subjects were classified into four groups: Normal, Asymptomatic MGD, MGD, and Mixed. Samples from the right eye of each subject were infused into the SCIEX 5600 TripleTOF mass spectrometer in negative ion mode. Lipid intensities identified with Analyst1.7 TF and SCIEX LipidView1.3 were normalized by an internal standard and total ion current, then statistically compared in MetaboAnalyst 4.0. Results: In meibum and tears, 76 and 78 unique OAHFAs were identified, respectively. The five most frequent and abundant OAHFAs were 18:2/16:2, 18:1/32:1, 18:1/30:1, 18:2/32:1, and 18:1/34:1. Two OAHFAs, 18:2/20:2 and 18:2/20:1, were identified only in tears. Initial univariate analysis revealed three differently regulated OAHFAs in meibum and eight in tears. Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis showed 18:1/32:1, 18:2/16:2, 18:1/34:1 and 18:0/32:1 in tears, and 18:2/16:2, 18:1/32:1 and 18:2/32:2 in meibum, had variable importance in projection scores >1.5 and contributed the most to the separation of groups. In both meibum and tears, all OAHFAS except 18:2/16:2 were reduced in MGD compared to the normal group. Conclusion: MGD is accompanied by differential expression of specific OAHFAs in meibum and tears. These results suggest OAHFAs play a role in the altered biochemical profile of the tear film lipid layer in humans with MGD.

Omali,N. B., Subbaraman,L. N., Heynen,M., Lada,M., Canavan,K., Fadli,Z., Ngo,W., Jones,L. Lipid deposition on contact lenses in symptomatic and asymptomatic contact lens wearers Cont Lens Anterior Eye 2021;44(1):56-61 [ Show Abstract ]

Purpose
Lipid deposition on contact lenses (CL) has traditionally been believed to reduce comfort during CL wear. The purpose of this study was to quantify lipid deposition on CL in a group of symptomatic and asymptomatic adapted CL wearers.

Methods
This was a single-masked, randomized clinical trial. Only confirmed symptomatic (comfortable lens wear time (CWT) < 8 h and a noticeable reduction in comfort over the course of the day) and asymptomatic (CWT > 10 h and minimal reduction in comfort over the course of the day) participants were recruited to participate in the study. Participants wore senofilcon A lenses in combination with a polyquaternium-based care solution (OPTI-FREE Replenish). Worn CL samples were collected on Day 14. Deposited lipid amounts from the lenses (including cholesteryl ester, cholesterol and triolein) were quantified using a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry technique.

Results
Lipid deposition was significantly higher in CL extracts of asymptomatic wearers compared to the symptomatic wearers for all lipid types quantified, including cholesteryl ester (2.1 ± 0.6 vs 1.6 ± 0.5 log μg/lens), cholesterol (1.5 ± 0.3 vs 1.1 ± 0.3 log μg/lens) and triolein (0.3 ± 0.2 vs 0.1 ± 0.1 log μg/lens) (all p < 0.002). The amount of cholesteryl ester deposited was greatest (p = 0.0001), followed by cholesterol, then triolein, for both the asymptomatic and symptomatic groups (both p = 0.0001).

Conclusion
This study demonstrated that the asymptomatic group deposited a significantly greater amount of lipid on their CL. Although lipid levels measured are considered low to trigger any observable clinical deposition, they may influence other clinical outcomes, particularly comfort.

Yamasaki,K., Drolle,E., Nakagawa,H., Hisamuare,R., Ngo,W., Jones,L. W. Impact of a low molecular weight hyaluronic acid derivative on contact lens wettability Cont Lens Anterior Eye 2021;44(3):101334 [ Show Abstract ]

Purpose
To investigate the interaction of a novel low molecular weight hyaluronic acid derivative containing hydrophobic groups with soft contact lenses and its effect on lens hydrophilicity compared with a conventional form of hyaluronic acid.

Methods
This investigation studied the uptake of fluorescently-labelled hyaluronic acid and a low molecular weight hyaluronic acid derivative to four types of contact lenses using fluorescent microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Further, the four lens types were used to compare efficacy in improving hydrophilicity, as well as maintenance of contact angle measurements, in commercially available multipurpose solutions that contained either hyaluronic acid, the low molecular weight hyaluronic acid derivative, or an alternative wetting agent.

Results
The low molecular weight hyaluronic acid derivative was found to sorb more readily to silicone hydrogel lenses and exhibit a greater accumulation over time than conventional hyaluronic acid. Multipurpose solutions containing the low molecular weight hyaluronic acid derivative showed an increase in lens hydrophilicity through decreases in contact angle measurements when compared with those obtained from lenses treated with multipurpose solutions containing conventional hyaluronic acid or alternative wetting agents. This increase in lens hydrophilicity associated with the low molecular weight hyaluronic acid derivative was also maintained over multiple cycles in phosphate buffered saline, while alternative solutions with conventional hyaluronic acid did not.

Conclusion
Overall, lens treatment using a low molecular weight hyaluronic acid derivative-based solution lead to improved in vitro lens hydrophilicity.

Yamasaki,K., Mizuno,Y., Kitamura,Y., McCanna,D. J., Ngo,W., Jones,L. W. The efficacy of povidone-iodine, hydrogen peroxide and a chemical multipurpose contact lens care system against Pseudomonas aeruginosa on various lens case surfaces Cont Lens Anterior Eye 2021;44(1):18-23 [ Show Abstract ]

Purpose
To determine the antimicrobial efficacy of a povidone-iodine system (PVP-I; cleadew, OPHTECS Corporation, Kobe, Japan), a peroxide system (AOSEPT Plus with HydraGlyde, Alcon, Fort Worth, TX), and a chemical multipurpose system (renu fresh, Bausch & Lomb, Rochester, NY) on contact lens case surfaces that are both in contact and not in contact with the solutions during lens disinfection.

Methods
The surfaces of the inner walls, underside of the lid, and lens holder (if applicable) of the cases were inoculated with P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853. The cases were disinfected with the solutions as per their manufacturer instructions. After disinfection, the inoculated surfaces were swabbed and the amount of surviving P. aeruginosa was determined. Following this experiment, separate cases were inoculated and disinfected as before. This time the cases were agitated after recommended disinfection time and the amount of P. aeruginosa in the disinfecting solution was quantified immediately, and again after resting for 7 days. Experiments were conducted in triplicate (n = 3).

Results
Units are expressed in log CFU. All three solutions significantly reduced P. aeruginosa on direct-contact surfaces (all p < 0.039). On non-contact surfaces, the reduction of P. aeruginosa in the PVP-I system (pre-disinfection: 6.8 ± 0.5, post-disinfection: 1.0 ± 0.0; p < 0.001) was significant, but not for the hydrogen peroxide system (pre-disinfection: 6.3 ± 0.6, post: 5.5 ± 0.5; p = 0.194) and the chemical multipurpose system (pre-disinfection: 6.6 ± 0.1, post-disinfection: 5.6 ± 0.8; p = 0.336). After 7 days post-disinfection, no P. aeruginosa regrowth was observed in the PVP-I system (Day 1: 1.0 ± 0.0, Day 7: 1.0 ± 0.0; p = 1) and the chemical multipurpose system (Day 1: 4.2 ± 0.2, Day 7: 1.8 ± 0.9; p = 0.012), however regrowth was observed in the hydrogen peroxide system (Day 1: 3.4 ± 0.6, Day 7: 6.1 ± 0.4; p = 0.003).

Conclusion
The PVP-I system was more effective against P. aeruginosa on non-contact surfaces than the hydrogen peroxide system or the chemical multipurpose system and is capable of inhibiting regrowth of P. aeruginosa for at least 7 days post-disinfection.

Yang,M., Ngo,W., Srinivasan,S., Heynen,M. L., Dantam,J., Subbaraman,L. N., Jones,L., Senchyna,M. Optimization of goblet cell density quantification methods Experimental Eye Research 2021;Online ahead of print [ Show Abstract ]

The purpose of this study was to develop a standardized, accurate and efficient method for estimating conjunctival goblet cell density (GCD) via optimizing sample storage conditions and quantification methods. Conjunctival impression cytology (CIC) membranes were collected from both eyes of 32 participants and were randomized to two storage durations (2-3 weeks, 6-7 weeks) and two storage container types (microcentrifuge tube, flat histology cassette). The CIC membranes were stained and subdivided into 25 areas (5 mm × 5 mm) for imaging and the GCs were counted under 200X magnification using three different methods: (1) full CIC membrane GC count of the 25 images with cell-counting software ("full"; reference method), (2) partial membrane GC count of 9 images with cell-counting software ("partial"), and (3) manual counting of the 25 images ("manual"). In all cases, GCD was determined by dividing the GC count by the counting area. The average time required for quantification was recorded to gauge efficiency. Results showed no significant difference in GC count between the two storage durations (p = 0.745) or storage container types (p = 0.552). The median (interquartile range (IQR)) time required to quantify a CIC membrane for the full, partial, and manual methods of GC counting, was 14.8(17.6), 4.6(5.2) and 5.0 (5.0) minutes, respectively. The agreement of GCD values between the full and manual methods (bias: 0.4, 95% LOA: [-4.6, 5.5]) was stronger than that comparing the full and partial methods (bias: 0.5, 95% LOA: [-18, 17]). All together, through systematic examination of key procedural variables, an optimized method for GCD quantification within 7 weeks of sample collection was outlined. Adaption of procedures described in this paper to facilitate accurate and efficient GCD quantification may serve as a valuable step in clinical trials investigating DED pathophysiology and/or novel DED treatment strategies.

2020

Cheung,S., Subbaraman,L. N., Ngo,W., Jay,G. D., Schmidt,T. A., Jones,L. Localization of full-length recombinant human proteoglycan-4 in commercial contact lenses using confocal microscopy Journal of Biomaterials Science, Polymer Edition 2020;31(1):110-122 [ Show Abstract ]

The aim of this study was to determine the sorption location of full-length recombinant human proteoglycan 4 (rhPRG4) tagged with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) to four silicone hydrogel contact lenses [balafilcon A (PureVision, Bausch + Lomb), senofilcon A (Acuvue Oasys, Johnson & Johnson), comfilcon A (Biofinity, CooperVision), lotrafilcon B (Air Optix, Alcon)] and one conventional hydrogel lens [etafilcon A (Acuvue 2, Johnson & Johnson)], using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Lenses (n = 3 each) were incubated under two conditions: (1) FITC-rhPRG4 solution at 300 μg/mL and (2) phosphate-buffered saline, for 1 h at 37 °C in darkness with gentle shaking. The central 4 mm of each lens was removed and viewed with the Zeiss 510 CLSM using an argon laser at 488 nm (FITC excitation 495 nm, emission 521 nm). Depth scans were taken at 1 μm intervals to a maximum depth of 100 μm. All lens materials demonstrated sorption of rhPRG4. Both senofilcon A and balafilcon A revealed FITC-rhPRG4 penetration into the bulk of the lens, generally favoring the surface. rhPRG4 was observed exclusively on the surface of lotrafilcon B, with no presence within the bulk of the lens. rhPRG4 was evenly distributed throughout the bulk of the lens, as well as on the surface, for comfilcon A and etafilcon A. The sorption profile of FITC-rhPRG4 was successfully visualized using CLSM in various contact lens materials. The polymer composition, surface treatment and pore size of the material can influence the sorption of rhPRG4.

Drolle,E., Ngo,W., Leonenko,Z., Subbaraman,L., Jones,L. Nanoscale Characteristics of Ocular Lipid Thin Films Using Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy 2020;9(7):1-11 [ Show Abstract ]

Purpose: To describe the use of Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) to investigate the electrical surface potential of human meibum and to demonstrate successful use of this instrument on both human meibum and a meibum model system (six-lipid stock [6LS]) to elucidate nanoscale surface chemistry and self-assembly characteristics.

Materials and Methods: 6LS and meibum were analyzed in this study. Mica-supported thin films were created using the Langmuir-Blodgett trough. Topography and electrical surface potential were quantified using simultaneous atomic force microscopy/KPFM imaging.

Results: Both lipid mixtures formed thin film patches on the surface of the mica substrate, with large aggregates resting atop. The 6LS had aggregate heights ranging from 41 to 153 nm. The range in surface potential was 33.0 to 125.9 mV. The meibum thin films at P = 5 mN/m had aggregates of 170 to 459 nm in height and surface poten- tial ranging from 15.9 to 76.1 mV, while thin films at P = 10 mN/m showed an aggregate size range of 147 to 407 nm and a surface potential range of 11.5 to 255.1 mV.

Conclusions: This study showed imaging of the differences in electrical surface poten- tial of meibum via KPFM and showed similarities in nanoscale topography. 6LS was also successfully analyzed, showing the capabilities of this method for use in both in vitro and ex vivo ocular research.

Translational Relevance: This study describes the use of KPFM for the study of ocular surface lipids for the first time and outlines possibilities for future studies to be carried out using this concept.

2019

Bitton,E., Ngo,W., Dupont,P. Eyelid hygiene products: A scoping review Cont Lens Anterior Eye 2019;42(6):591-597

Ngo,W., Srinivasan,S., Jones,L. An Eyelid Warming Device for the Management of Meibomian Gland Dysfunction J Optom 2019;12(2):120-130 [ Show Abstract ]

PURPOSE: To determine the effectiveness of the MGDRx EyeBag in managing meibomian gland dysfunction.

METHODS: This was a prospective, randomized, controlled, observer-masked, bilateral eye study that enrolled 29 participants. Participants were randomized into either the EyeBag group or the control group. The EyeBag group used the EyeBag 10minutes 2x/day, and the control group remained on their own dry eye treatment regimen (if applicable). All participants were observed at baseline, 2 weeks (2wk) and 4 weeks (4wk). At 4wk, participants in the EyeBag group were asked to stop using the EyeBag. All participants were seen again at 8 weeks (8wk). Primary outcomes were the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI), Current Symptoms Questionnaire (CSQ), meibomian gland score (MG score), and non-invasive tear breakup time (NIBUT).

RESULTS: Twenty-five participants completed the study (mean age 38±15 years, 7 male). There was a significant change in OSDI over time for the EyeBag group (mean[lower 95% CI, upper 95% CI], baseline: 39.1[31.1,47.0], 2wk: 26.8[19.7,33.9], 4wk: 26.6[16.5,36.7], 8wk: 27.7[18.4,37.0]; p=0.01), but not in the control group (p=0.22), but no significant difference between groups at all time points (all p>0.27). Symptoms immediately improved after conducting the EyeBag based on at-home CSQ scores (Δ=-5.0 points, p<0.01), but not in the control group. For both groups, there was no significant change (p-value EyeBag,p-value control) in MG score (0.21,0.17) and NIBUT (0.49,0.06) over time.

CONCLUSIONS: The EyeBag may relieve symptoms of dry eye, but the effect on meibomian gland function and tear stability when used for only 4 weeks was undetectable.

2018

Ngo,W., Jones, L., Bitton, E. Short-Term Comfort Responses Associated With the Use of Eyelid Cleansing Products to Manage Demodex folliculorum Eye and Contact Lens 2018;44(Suppl 2):S87-S92 [ Show Abstract ]

PURPOSE: To quantify the discomfort over time of various eyelid cleansers against Demodex.
METHODS: This was a prospective, randomized, controlled, crossover, open-label study that enrolled 26 participants. The cleansers used in this study were Biotissue Cliradex (CD), OCuSOFT Lid Scrubs Plus (OP), OCuSOFT OUST Demodex Swabstix (ODS), TheraTears Theralid (TT), NovaBay Avenova (NA). Bausch+Lomb Sensitive Eyes Plus saline was used as a control. Participants were asked to close their eyes as the product was gently rubbed (10 cycles of gentle lateral motion) into the eyelashes. Participants verbally rated their discomfort (0 = no discomfort, 10 = maximum tolerable discomfort) every 15 sec for the first 5 min, and every 30 sec for 5 min after, for a total of 10 min. The order of products used was randomized, and washout period between cleansing was 48 hr.
RESULTS: Twenty-five participants completed the study (mean age=26±6). There was no significant difference in discomfort scores at pre-application. The discomfort levels of saline, OP, and NA over the 10-min period were not significantly different than their pre-application discomfort at all time points (all P≥0.99). The discomfort of CD was significantly higher than pre-application levels between t=15 sec and t=180 sec (all P≤0.01), with maximum median (interquartile range [IQR]) discomfort of 3.0 (5.0) occurring at t=45 sec. The discomfort of TT was significantly higher than pre-application levels between t=45 and t=90 (all P<0.02), with maximum median (IQR) discomfort of 1.0 (1.5) occurring at t=75 sec. The discomfort of ODS was significantly higher than pre-application levels starting from t=60 sec and onward, with maximum median (IQR) discomfort of 6.0 (5.0) occurring at t=300 sec.
CONCLUSION: Of the cleansers used in this study, the ones that induced significant discomfort were CD, TT, and ODS. The results from this study may help clinicians educate patients about what to expect when approaching the topic of eyelid Demodex treatment.

Ngo,W., Srinivasan,S., Jones, L., A comparison of dry eye diagnostic tests between symptomatic and asymptomatic age-matched females Eye and Contact Lens 2018;44(Suppl 1):S110-S114 [ Show Abstract ]

PURPOSE: To quantify the strength of association of dry eye (DE) symptoms to DE diagnostic tests in age-matched females.
METHODS: Twenty females with DE symptoms (Ocular Surface Disease Index, OSDI, ≥13) were age-matched with 20 females without DE symptoms (OSDI<13) in this cross-sectional study. Noninvasive tear breakup time (NIBUT), ocular staining, meibum quality, number of obstructed meibomian glands (MGs), lid wiper epitheliopathy, Marx line placement, eyelid margin score, Schirmer test, meibography, and visual acuity were assessed in both groups.
RESULTS: Twenty participant pairs completed the study. The age (median/interquartile range [IQR]) of the symptomatic group was 60/15 and the asymptomatic group was 62/15. The tests (median/IQR, P value) that were significantly different between the symptomatic group and the asymptomatic group were OSDI (35.4/35.4 vs. 3.1/6.7, P<0.01), NIBUT (2.1/0.7 sec vs. 3.0/3.0 sec, P=0.01), meibum quality (3.0/0.0 grade units vs. 2.0/1.0 grade units, P<0.01), number of obstructed MGs (7.0/2.0 glands vs. 5.0/4.8 glands, P<0.01), and ocular staining (5.5/3.8 grade units vs. 0.5/1.0 grade units, P<0.01). The tests (area under curve, [AUC], odds ratio [OR]) that were most strongly associated with DE symptoms were ocular staining (0.93, 5.0), number of obstructed MGs (0.79, 2.6), meibum quality (0.76, 2.4), and NIBUT (0.74, 3.2) (all P<0.05). There was no significant difference between the two groups for the other DE tests (all P>0.05), and similarly, no significant association to DE symptoms (all P>0.05).
CONCLUSION: The diagnostic tests most strongly associated with DE symptoms in older women were ocular staining, meibum quality, number of obstructed MGs, and tear film stability.

2017

Ngo,W., Srinivasan,S., Houtman,D., Jones,L. The relief of dry eye signs and symptoms using a combination of lubricants, lid hygiene and ocular nutraceuticals Journal of Optometry 2017;10(1):26-33 [ Show Abstract ]

Purpose To determine the combined effect of TheraTears® Lubricant Eye Drops, TheraTears® SteriLid Eyelid Cleanser, and TheraTears® Nutrition on dry eye signs and symptoms. Methods This prospective study enrolled 28 dry eye participants. Participants were instructed to use the Lubricant Eye Drops at least 2–4× a day, SteriLid 1–2× a day, and Nutrition 3 gel caps once a day. Participants were followed up at baseline, 1 month and 3 months. Outcome variables were the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI), Symptom Assessment iN Dry Eye (SANDE) questionnaire, non-invasive tear break-up time (NIBUT), osmolarity, number of meibomian glands blocked (#MG blocked), meibum quality, eyelid margin features, Schirmer's test, tear film lipid layer thickness (LLT), meniscus height, corneal and conjunctival staining. Results Twenty participants (mean age = 43, from 23 to 66, 17F, 3M) completed the study. Participants reported having used, on average, the Lubricant Eye Drop 2.4×/day, the SteriLid 1.1×/day, and the Nutrition 3 gel caps 1×/day. There was a significant change over time (p < 0.05) for OSDI (-21.2 points), SANDE (-32.4 points), NIBUT (+0.43 s), eyelid margin features (-1.1 grade), meibum quality (-1.0 grade), and #MG blocked (-4.0 glands). Conclusion By using a combination of TheraTears® Lubricant Eye Drop, SteriLid, and Nutrition, patients experience significant relief in both dry eye symptoms and signs. © 2016 Spanish General Council of Optometry

Ngo,W., Srinivasan,S., Keech,A., Keir,N., Jones,L. Self versus examiner administration of the Ocular Surface Disease Index© Journal of Optometry 2017;10(1):34-42 [ Show Abstract ]

Purpose To compare the difference in Ocular Surface Disease Index© (OSDI) scores when participants were given the OSDI to complete on their own (self-guided, SG), versus under the guidance of the examiner (examiner-guided, EG). Methods 100 participants enrolled in this prospective two-visit study (fifty under-45 years old, 38F/12M; and fifty 45 years-and-older, 42F/8M). Participants who scored =1 on the Subjective Evaluation of Symptoms of Dryness (SESoD) were included in this study. Participants completed the OSDI SG during the first visit. Participants returned the next day and repeated the OSDI, but with EG (with standardized instructions). Participants were under deception and believed that they were comparing the OSDI to the SESoD. Results The mean OSDI score of the SG and EG administration was 32.0 ± 17.3 and 33.8 ± 19.6 respectively (p > 0.05) with 95% limits of agreement between -20.6 and +24.2. The correlation between SG and EG administration was Spearman's r = 0.81, p 0.05) for both the under-45 group, and 45-and-older group. The 95% limits of agreement for the under-45 group were smaller than the 45-and-older group (under-45: [-15.5, +13.1,], 45-and-older: [-23.3, +32.2]). A significant difference was found between 8 of the 12 questions items (all p = 0.01). However, the mean difference for each was <0.6 and was not considered to be clinically significant. Conclusion There was no clinically significant difference in OSDI score between SG and EG administration, however having instructions provided with EG administration affected variability of scores in the older group more than the younger group. © 2016 Spanish General Council of Optometry

2016

Moezzi,A. M., Varikooty,J., Schulze,M., Ngo,W., Lorenz,K. O., Boree,D., Jones,L. W. Corneal Swelling with Cosmetic etafilcon A Lenses versus No Lens Wear Optometry and Vision Science 2016;93(6):619-628 [ Show Abstract ]

Purpose: To determine if the use of pigments or adding polyvinyl pyrrolidone during the fabrication of 1-DAY ACUVUE DEFINE (AD) brand contact lenses impacts open-eye corneal swelling compared with no lens wear (NLW). Methods: A partial double-masked, randomized, bilateral crossover study was conducted in 24 Asian subjects using AD, 1-DAY ACUVUE DEFINE with Lacreon (ADL), NLW, and a control lens with no tint (1-DAY ACUVUE MOIST [AM]). Central corneal thickness was measured before insertion and immediately after removal after 8 ± 1 h of open-eye wear using an optical pachymeter in one eye. Corneal thickness along a 10-mm cord was measured in the contralateral eye using the Visante optical coherence tomographer (OCT). Corneal swelling was tested for noninferiority using a 5% margin. The endothelial bleb response was measured at baseline and 20 min after lens insertion using specular microscopy. Subjective grading of corneal staining and limbal/bulbar hyperemia were also monitored. Results: After 8 ± 1 h of open-eye wear, central corneal swelling across the study lenses with either optical pachymeter or OCT methods was negligible. Peripheral corneal swelling least-square mean differences with OCT were -0.03% (95% confidence interval [95% CI], -0.65 to 0.58%) and -0.26% (95% CI, -0.87 to 0.36%) between AD and ADL and the control lens (AM), respectively, and 1.67% (95% CI, 1.06 to 2.29%) and 1.45% (95% CI, 0.84 to 2.06%) between AD and ADL and NLW, respectively. No endothelial blebs were observed. No clinically significant differences were distinguished between the lenses and NLW for corneal staining and limbal/bulbar hyperemia. Conclusions: After 8 ± 1 h of open-eye wear, central and peripheral corneal swelling along the horizontal meridian with AD, ADL, AM, and NLW were equivalent. These results confirm that the addition of polyvinyl pyrrolidone or pigments to etafilcon A to obtain a limbal ring design have no impact on corneal swelling or limbal/bulbar hyperemia during normal open-eye wear.

2015

Ngo,W., Caffery,B., Srinivasan,S., Jones,L. W. Effect of lid debridement-scaling in sjögren syndrome dry eye Optometry and Vision Science 2015;92(9):e316-e320 [ Show Abstract ]

Purpose To evaluate the effect of lid debridement-scaling (LDS) on dry eye signs and symptoms in subjects with Sjögren syndrome (SS). Methods This prospective randomized controlled study enrolled 14 female subjects with SS. Seven subjects were randomized into the treatment group where they were selected to receive LDS; the remainder did not receive LDS and served as control subjects. Lid debridement-scaling was conducted using a stainless steel golf club spud (Hilco Wilson Ophthalmics, Plainville, MA) on both the upper and lower eyelids of both eyes. Outcome variables were assessed before LDS and again 1 month later. The outcome variables were the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI), Symptom Assessment iN Dry Eye (SANDE) visual analog scores, ocular staining (SICCA OSS [Sjögren's International Collaborative Clinical Alliance Ocular Staining Score]), fluorescein tear breakup time (FLBUT), meibomian gland score (MGS), meibomian gland yielding liquid secretions (MGYLS) score, and line of Marx's (LOM) position. Results Thirteen subjects completed the study. Data from only the right eye were analyzed. For the control group (n = 6; mean [±SD] age, 62.3 [±11.6] years), the pre-LDS, post-LDS, and significance level (pre-LDS mean [±SD] vs. post-LDS mean [±SD]; p value) were as follows: OSDI (58.3 [±22.1] vs. 48.3 [±29.0]; p = 0.051), SANDE (77.4 [±22.1] vs. 89.6 [±32.6]; p = 0.20), SICCA OSS (7.0 [±4.5] vs. 8.2 [±3.5]; p = 0.25), MGS (1.3 [±1.5] vs. 1.0 [±0.9]; p = 0.75), MGYLS (0.3 [±0.5] vs. 0.0 [±0.0]; p = 0.50), FLBUT (2.99 [±1.54] vs. 2.85 [±1.79]; p = 0.63), and LOM (2.0 [±0.0] vs. 2.0 [±0.0]; p = n/a). For the treatment group (n = 7; mean [±SD] age, 58.0 [±8.1] years), the pre-LDS, post-LDS, and significance level were as follows: OSDI (63.2 [±13.3] vs. 46.9 [±19.4]; p = 0.04), SANDE (72.6 [±17.1] vs. 77.0 [±28.0]; p = 0.54), SICCA OSS (6.6 [±2.9] vs. 5.0 [±3.9]; p = 0.02), MGS (1.0 [±1.2] vs. 3.1 [±1.7]; p = 0.01), MGYLS (0.0 [±0.0] vs. 0.6 [±1.0]; p = 0.50), FLBUT (3.13 [±0.81] vs. 3.45 [±1.03]; p = 0.53), and LOM (0.9 [±0.9] vs. 1.0 [±1.0]; p = 1.00). Conclusions This pilot study showed that LDS improved symptoms, ocular staining, and meibomian gland function for the group that received LDS. This indicates that LDS can aid in the management of SS dry eye. © 2015 American Academy of Optometry.

2014

Ngo,W., Srinivasan,S., Schulze,M., Jones,L. Repeatability of grading meibomian gland dropout using two infrared systems Optometry and Vision Science 2014;91(6):658-667 [ Show Abstract ]

PURPOSE: To determine the interobserver and intraobserver repeatability in using the OCULUS Keratograph 4 (K4) and 5M (K5M) to grade meibomian gland (MG) dropout using meibography grading scales. METHODS: The inferior and superior eyelids of 40 participants (35 women, 5 men; mean age = 32 years) were imaged three times each on both instruments. The images were split into one training and two study sets; the latter were graded (four-point meibography scale) by two observers on two separate occasions (24 hours apart) to determine repeatability. Semiobjective quantification of percentage MG dropout was conducted using ImageJ on K4 and K5M images. A finer seven-point meibography scale was used to grade a separate set of K5M images. RESULTS: For the four-point scale, interobserver mean difference (MD) (±SD) was 0.08 (±0.55) on day 1 and 0.13 (±0.50) on day 2, and the concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) was 0.79 and 0.81 on days 1 and 2, respectively. Intraobserver MD (±SD) was 0.04 (±0.54), CCC = 0.79 for observer 1; intraobserver MD (±SD) was -0.09 (±0.60), CCC = 0.74 for observer 2. For the seven-point scale, interobserver MD (±SD) was 0.05 (±0.45), CCC = 0.89 on day 1, and interobserver MD (±SD) was 0.01 (±0.41), CCC = 0.91 on day 2. Intraobserver MD (±SD) was -0.10 (±0.35), CCC = 0.93 for observer 1, and intraobserver MD (±SD) was -0.06 (±0.30), CCC = 0.95 for observer 2. Percentage dropout measured between the K4 and K5M images showed lack of agreement, with 21.8% coefficient of repeatability. There was no significant correlation (r 0.05) between meibography score and clinical signs (corneal staining, gland expressibility, telangiectasia, vascularity, lash loss); however, there was a high correlation (r = 0.77; p < 0.05) between meibography score with percentage dropout. CONCLUSIONS: Observers graded from -1 to +1 grade units between and within themselves for a four-point scale, 95% of the time. Although the interobserver and intraobserver repeatability of the K4 and K5M were very similar, a high rate of disagreement in percentage dropout between K4 and K5M images suggests that the two instruments cannot be interchanged. Meibomian gland dropout scores did not correlate significantly with clinical signs. Using a finer scale may be beneficial for detecting change.

2013

Ngo,W., Srinivasan,S., Jones,L. Historical overview of imaging the meibomian glands Journal of Optometry 2013;6(1):1-8 [ Show Abstract ]

Growing knowledge of the role of the meibomian glands in dry eye disease and contact lens discomfort has resulted in a surge of interest in visualizing these glands within the eyelids. This manuscript provides an overview of the many different visualization methods that have evolved over the past 30-40 years. Some of the visualization methods covered in this review include lid transillumination, video and non-contact meibography, and imaging methods employing confocal microscopy, optical coherence tomography and ultrasound. This review has also highlighted all the studies to date that have employed meibography as part of their methods. An overview of the available meibography dropout grading systems will also be provided. © 2012 Spanish General Council of Optometry.

2009

Ngo,W., Heynen,M., Joyce,E., Jones,L. Impact of protein and lipid on neutralization times of hydrogen peroxide care regimens Eye and Contact Lens 2009;35(6):282-286 [ Show Abstract ]

Purpose: To investigate the effect of protein, lipid, and lens material on the neutralization kinetics of one-step hydrogen peroxide disinfection systems. Methods: A UV-based assay was used to determine the rate of neutralization of three one-step hydrogen peroxide systems (CIBA Vision Clear Care; CIBA Vision AOSEPT; Abbott Medical Optics UltraCare). Protein (bovine serum albumin and lysozyme) and various lipids were added to the lens cases during the neutralization phase to determine whether they influenced the rate of neutralization. Finally, rates were determined when the cases contained a silicone hydrogel lens material (lotrafilcon A) or Food and Drug Administration group IV (etafilcon A) lenses. Results: Neutralization for all three systems was complete within 90 minutes. The rate of neutralization for Clear Care and AOSEPT were not significantly different from each other (P=NS). UltraCare exhibited statistically higher levels of peroxide up to the 20-minute time point (P<0.001) Protein, lipid, or lens material did not significantly affect the rate of neutralization for any regimen (P=NS). Conclusions: Tablet-based one-step disinfection systems neutralize at a slower rate than disc-based peroxide systems, but this difference is only significant during the first 20 minutes after the onset of neutralization. Neither lens deposition nor lens material plays a role in the speed of neutralization of peroxide-based systems. © 2009 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Scientific Presentations

2020

Craig J, Bitton E, Dantam J, Ngo W, Jones L. Subjective ocular awareness with the use of eyelid cleansing products available for the management of demodex folliculorum Academy at Home, 2020

Nagaarudkumaran N, McCanna D, Ngo W, Jones L. In vitro quantification of cytokines adhered to contemporary contact lens materials The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, 2020 [ Show Abstract ][ PDF ]

Purpose : Contact lenses (CL) may induce a low-level inflammatory response on the ocular surface. Previous studies have quantified the concentration of inflammatory mediators present in the tear film during CL wear. Analyzing the inflammatory mediators loosely adhered to CL materials may provide another perspective on the role that contact lenses play in inflammation. The purpose of this in vitro study was to quantify a variety of cytokines found in the tear film that adhered to various CL materials and to develop a method that could extract them.

Methods : Cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α (Meso Scale Diagnostics, Rockville, MD) were combined with 5 mL of Diluent 2 to prepare a cytokine solution with a final concentration of 119.41, 166.05, 101.48 and 40.73 pg/mL, respectively. Contact lenses (etafilcon A, somofilcon A, omafilcon A, delefilcon A) (n=4 each) were each placed into a polypropylene tube containing a volume of 200 μL of the prepared cytokine solution and were incubated at 23°C for 6 hours. The lenses were removed from the tubes using tweezers and placed into a 0.6 mL microcentrifuge tube containing 200 μL of Diluent 2 and were incubated at 23°C for 1 hour. The microcentrifuge tube was then vortexed for 5 seconds and pin sized holes were made at the base of the tube. The tube was then placed into a larger 2.0 mL microcentrifuge tube acting as a carrier and were centrifuged at 604 RCF. The eluent in the 2.0 mL microcentrifuge was then collected and stored at -80°C for cytokine quantification at a later date, using the MESO QuickPlex SQ 120 (Meso Scale Diagnostics, Rockville, MD). Statistical analysis was performed using a one-way ANOVA.

Results : There was no significant difference between cytokine concentrations for all CL materials (p>0.05).

Conclusions : While there were no significant differences between the concentrations of cytokines found loosely adhered to the soft CL materials investigated, the results support this method as a means to quantify such cytokines on soft lens materials. This method may be used to examine human-worn lenses in future studies.

This is a 2020 ARVO Annual Meeting abstract.

2016

Ngo W, Jones L, Srinivasan S, Bitton E. Discomfort over Time Associated with various Ocular Demodex Treatment Products Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2016;57: E-abstract 2838 [ PDF ]

Ngo W, Srinivasan S, Jones L. Comparison of dry eye tests between symptomatic and asymptomatic age-matched females Optom Vis Sci 2016;93: E-abstract 165089 [ PDF ]

2015

Keir N, Srinivasan S, Ngo W, Chamberlain P, Feng W, Jones L, McNally J. Impact of time of day and length of wear on contact lens discomfort Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2015;56: E-abstract 6107

Ngo W, Caffery B, Srinivasan S, Jones L. Effect of Lid Debridement-Scaling on Dry Eye Signs and Symptoms in Sjogren’s Syndrome Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2015;56: E-abstract 2487 [ PDF ]

Ngo W, Srinivasan S, Jones L. The impact of an Eyelid Warming Device in the Management of Meibomian Gland Dysfunction Optom Vis Sci 2015;92: E-abstract 150013

Ngo W, Srinivasan S, Jones L, Bitton E. Enhancement of Clinical Observation of Demodex Folliculorum Optom Vis Sci 2015;92: E-abstract 155233 [ PDF ]

Srinivasan S, Ngo W, Jones L. The Relief of Dry Eye Signs and Symptoms Using a Combination of Lubricants, Lid Hygiene and Ocular Nutraceuticals Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2015;56: E-abstract 4465 [ PDF ]

2014

Moezzi A, Varikooty J, Schulze M, Ngo W, Lorenz K, Boree M. Open-eye corneal swelling with etafilcon A daily disposable hydrogel contact lenses compared to no lens wear BCLA Clinical Conference and Exhibition, 2014 [ PDF ]

Moezzi A, Varikooty J, Schulze M, Ngo W, Lorenz K, Jones L. Open Eye Corneal Swelling with 1-DAY ACUVUE® DEFINE™ and 1-DAY ACUVUE® DEFINE™ with Lacreon® compared to 1-DAY ACUVUE® MOIST® Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2014;55: E-abstract 4672 [ PDF ]

Ngo W, Feng Y, Keir N, Simpson T. Selecting a Sensory Panel to Judge Contact Lens Discomfort Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2014;55: E-abstract 4666 [ PDF ]

Ngo W, Srinivasan S, Feng Y, Keir N, Simpson T. Comparison of Two Sensory Panel Selection Strategies for Beginning and End of Day Lens Discomfort Optom Vis Sci 2014;91: E-abstract 140089

2013

Ngo W, Srinivasan S, Schulze M, Jones L. Inter- and intra-observer agreement and repeatability of imaging the meibomian glands with the oculus Keratograph 4 and Keratograph 5M Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2013;54: E-Abstract 3569 [ PDF ]

Ngo W, Srinivasan S, Schulze M, Jones L. Inter- and intra-observer agreement using infrared meibography systems Canadian Optometry Schools Research Conference, Waterloo, Canada, 2013

Ngo W, Srinivasan S, Schulze M, Jones L. Inter- and intra-observer agreement and repeatability of imaging the meibomian glands with the Oculus Keratograph 4 and Keratograph 5M Tear Film & Ocular Surface International Conference, Sicily, Italy, 2013

2009

Ngo W, Heynen M, Joyce E, Jones L. Impact of protein, lipid and lens polymer on neutralization times of hydrogen peroxide care regimens Optom Vis Sci 2009;86:E-abstract 095631

Continuing Education Presentations

2019

Jones L, Walsh K, Ng AY, Ngo W. TFOS DEWS II report: Applying the clinical recommendations through case-based learning Alcon CE meeting, Cambridge, Canada, 2019

Professional Publications

2021

Ngo W. CLEAR report summary: Anatomy and Physiology of the Anterior Eye https://contactlensupdate.com/2021/06/15/anatomy-and-physiology-of-the-anterior-eye/ 2021

2015

Ngo W. Article Review:Identifying Demodex in the eyelash follicle without epilation ContactLensUpdate.com 2015

Ngo W. Meibomian Gland Dysfunction and Contact Lens Wear Contact Lens Spectrum 2015;30, March: 40, 42, 43

2014

Ngo W. Summary: Report of the Management and Therapy Subcommittee ContactLensUpdate.com 2014