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Peer-reviewed articles


Jabeen,A., Luensmann,D., Woods,J., Hill,J. S., Jones,L. Evaluation of Lag of Accommodation with Full-Field Diffusion Optics Technology™ (DOT) Contrast Management Spectacle Lenses in Emmetropic Children Clinical Ophthalmology 2024;2024(18):1181-1190 [ Show Abstract ]

Purpose: To evaluate the impact on the lag of accommodation (LOA) in emmetropic children after short-term wear of full-field Diffusion Optics TechnologyTM (DOT) spectacle lenses, designed to modulate retinal contrast to control myopia progression.

Patients and Methods: This was a single-visit, prospective, randomized, subject-masked study of emmetropes (ametropes ±1.00D or less in each meridian) with no history of myopia control treatment. Unaided logMAR visual acuity was measured, and ocular dominance was determined using the sighting method. In a randomized order, participants wore plano full-field contrast management (DOT) spectacles (no clear central aperture) or control spectacles (standard single vision spectacle lenses). Each participant was given 5 minutes for adaptation to the respective lenses before open field autorefraction measurements were taken at 6 meters and 40 cm. Ten measurements were taken for each eye. Data were evaluated from the right eye and the dominant eye separately.

Results: A total of 30 participants (20 females and 10 males) with a mean age of 10.4 ± 2.8 (7 to 17) years completed the study. There was no significant difference in right eye mean LOA with contrast management spectacles 0.57 ± 0.39D versus control spectacles 0.62 ± 0.34D; Wilcoxon test, p = 0.37. For dominant eyes, LOA values were 0.60 ± 0.40D and 0.68 ± 0.33D with contrast management spectacles and control spectacles, respectively (p = 0.14). Additionally, no significant difference was observed in mean LOA between males and females or between age groups (7–11 years vs 12–17 years) for either right or dominant eyes with contrast management or control spectacles (all p > 0.05).

Conclusion: Full-field contrast management spectacle lenses had no significant effect on LOA compared to standard single vision spectacle lenses, indicating no differential impact on accommodative response over the short period of lens wear tested.

Scientific Presentations


Jabeen A, Luensmann D, Woods J, Hill J, Jones L. Short-term effect of DOT spectacle lenses on choroidal thickness in emmetropic children The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Seattle, WA, May 9, 2024 [ Show Abstract ][ PDF ]

Purpose: To investigate regional changes in choroidal thickness (ChT) following short-term wear of Diffusion Optics Technology™ (DOT) spectacle lenses, designed to control myopia by lowering retinal contrast.

Method: Emmetropic children (SER +1.00 to -0.75 D) aged 8 to 14 years wore plano DOT spectacle lenses without central apertures and +3.00D spectacle lenses in a two-visit, prospective, randomized, subject-masked crossover study. High-resolution OCT (Triton DRI-OCT, Topcon) evaluated central, parafoveal (3 mm from the fovea) and perifoveal (6 mm from the fovea) ChT after 0, 30 and 60 minutes of viewing a high contrast video at each visit.

Results: A total of 30 participants (17F, 13M) with a mean (± SD) age of 10.9 (1.7) years completed the study. After 30 minutes of spectacle lens wear, a significant increase in ChT was observed with DOT spectacle lenses compared to +3.00D spectacle lenses in 4 of the 9 macula regions evaluated (p<0.05 for all). DOT spectacles showed a significant ChT thickening in the central (+7.69 ± 4.19 μm), parafoveal regions at nasal (+9.01 ± 2.77 μm) and temporal (+6.20 ± 5.46 μm) and inferior perifoveal (+9.79 ± 2.31 μm) compared to myopic defocus with +3.00D lenses. After 60 minutes, ChT remained higher only in the inferior parafoveal region (+3.96 ± 8.33 μm, p=0.03), while all other regions returned to baseline levels.

Conclusion: After short-term DOT spectacle lens wear, emmetropic children experienced macula ChT thickening, similar or greater than the response observed with +3.00D spectacle lens wear. These results indicate the choroid is able to respond to contrast reduction. Further research is required to investigate the long-term impact of contrast modulation on ChT.


Jones L, Jabeen A, Subbaraman L, Heynen M, Keir N, Srinivasan S. Method optimization to quantify four different neuropeptides in the human tear film Global Specialty Lens Symposium, Las Vegas, Nevada, 2019 [ PDF ]

Jones L, Yee A, Jabeen A, Subbaraman L, McCanna D, Phan CM. Novel in-vitro method to study bacterial interaction with contact lenses Global Specialty Lens Symposium, Las Vegas, Nevada, 2019 [ PDF ]


Jabeen A, Subbaraman L, Heynen M, Srinivasan S, Jones L. Method Optimization to Quantify Four Neuropeptides in the Human Tear Film American Academy of Optometry, San Antonio, USA, 2018 [ Show Abstract ][ PDF ]

Purpose: Ocular surface neuropeptides play a key role in modulating the infiltration and activation of immune cells in both tearing and ocular discomfort. The purpose of this study was to optimize a method to quantify the amount of four neuropeptides - calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), Substance P (SP), Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP) - in the human tear film

Methods: Basal and flush tears (following instillation of 20 microliters of saline on the ocular surface) of 8 healthy participants were collected from the right and left eyes respectively, using a microcapillary method on day 1. On day 2, the same procedure was repeated. The concentration of the four neuropeptides in the tears was determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. The ELISA kits were tested for specificity and sensitivity as per manufacturer’s guidelines and the experiments were repeated three times to determine reproducibility. The limit of detection was based on the variance of the blank samples and the variance of the lowest level of each individual tear samples added.

Results: RM-ANOVA showed no statistical difference in the concentration of CGRP, NPY and VIP between basal and flush tears for days 1 and 2 (p > 0.05). However, statistically significant differences were found for SP between basal and flush tears for day 1 (p = 0.037) and flush tears for days 1 and 2 (p = 0.018) respectively.

Conclusion: ELISA is a sensitive method that can be adopted to quantify neuropeptides in the human tear film. The optimized technique can be used to identify differences in the level of various neuropeptides in patients with contact lens discomfort and varying degrees of dry eye.

Yee A, Jabeen A, Subbaraman L, McCanna D, Phan C-M, Jones L. Novel In-Vitro Method to Study Bacterial Interaction with Contact Lenses American Academy of Optometry, San Antonio, USA, 2018 [ Show Abstract ][ PDF ]

Purpose: Previous in-vitro studies have used a “soak” or closed vial method to assess bacterial binding to contact lenses (CL). The purpose of this study was to develop a novel in-vitro drip model to determine if bacterial adhesion to a CL material was possible. The novel in-vitro drip model would more closely resemble an accurate eye model in comparison to current methods undertaken.

Methods: The novel in-vitro drip method consists of a 5.5 mL syringe with saline solution and a flow rate controller dispensing 5 µl of saline solution containing the bacteria. The consistent drip volume is adjustable and mimics the normal human tear volume and flow. The solution flows through a silicone tube and onto a CL. The CL was placed on a sterile glass eyeball in an enclosed container to maintain the environment’s humidity. In the soak method, the CL was placed on top of a sterile glass eyeball and placed in the enclosed container with a 5 mL saline solution of 1.0 x 107 colony forming units (CFU)/mL. For both methods, lenses were incubated in the solution for 16 hours. After removal, the viable cells were diluted in serial dilutions. Aliquots of each dilution were plated on a trypticase soy agar plate and incubated for 24 hours at 37°C. After 24 hours, the CFU per lens were calculated manually under magnification.

Results: Using the in-vitro drip method, adhesion of Staphyloccocus aureus onto senofilcon A was successfully demonstrated. Preliminary analysis showed no significant difference (p = 0.34) between the drip and soak method when compared at high CFU/mL.

Conclusion: The novel drip method is a promising alternative to the conventional soak method, as this model is closer to the contamination that would occur in a human eye. The drip method may be an acceptable method of testing once the method can be further developed and tested in future studies, using a variety of lenses and bacteria.


Jabeen A, Subbaraman L, Babaei Omali N, Srinivasan S, Jones L. Method optimization to quantify calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in human tear film Optom Vis Sci 2017;94: E-Abstract 175270

Jabeen A, Luensmann D, Woods J, Hill J, Jones L. Evaluation of the Lag of accommodation with DOT spectacle lenses The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, New Orleans, LA, USA, April, [ Show Abstract ][ PDF ]

Purpose: Alteration in contrast have shown to impact the accommodative accuracy in myopes. This study investigated whether the Diffusion Optics Technology™ (DOT) spectacles that are
designed to reduce the contrast on peripheral retina, have an impact on the lag of accommodation (LOA) in emmetropic children after short-term wear.

Methods: This was a single visit, prospective, randomized, subject-masked study. Participants were eligible if they had ±1.00 diopters prescription or less and they had no history of previous myopia control treatment. The logMAR visual acuity was measured and ocular dominance was tested using the sighting method. Participants then wore a pair of plano DOT spectacles (not featuring a central clear zone) and standard plano spectacles (control) in a randomized order and, after 5 minutes adaptation to the lenses, ten open-field autorefraction measurements (Grand Seiko 5500) were taken for each eye, with the target at 6m and 40cm. Analysis was conducted on the mean auto-refraction to determine differences in LOA between lens types for the right eye and also for the dominant eye.

Results: A total of 30 participants (20 female:10 male) with a mean (± SD) age of 10.4 ± 2.8 years (range 7 to 17) completed the study. The mean ± SD LOA was 0.57 ± 0.39D for the right eye and 0.60 ± 0.40D for the dominant eye whilst wearing DOT spectacles and similarly, 0.62 ± 0.34D for the right eye and 0.68 ± 0.33D for the dominant eye while wearing control spectacles. Mann Whitney U test results indicated no statistically significant difference between DOT and control spectacles for the right eye data (p=0.64) or for the dominant eye data (p=0.25). Similarly, no difference was observed in the mean LOA when compared between males and females, and between the younger (6-11) and older (12-17) age groups for both right eye and dominant eye with DOT and control spectacles (all p>0.05).

Conclusion: DOT lenses have no significant effect on the lag of accommodation compared to single vision spectacles after short-term wear. The study counters the supposition that reduced contrast may influence accommodative accuracy.



Jabeen A, Jones L. Lag of accommodation with DOT spectacle lenses 2022.