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Peer-reviewed articles

2022

Lourenco Nogueira,C., Boegel,S. C., Shukla,M., Ngo,W., Jones,L., Aucoin,M. G. Antiviral Activity of Contemporary Contact Lens Care Solutions against Two Human Seasonal Coronavirus Strains Pathogens 2022;11(4):472 [ Show Abstract ]

Background: Given that reports have suggested SARS-CoV-2 can be transmitted via conjunctiva, the ability of contact lens (CL) care products to reduce the infectiousness of two seasonal human coronavirus (HCoV) (HCoV-229E and HCoV-OC43) surrogates for SARS-CoV-2 was investigated.

Methods: Biotrue and Boston Simplus (Bausch&Lomb), OPTI-FREE Puremoist and Clear Care (Alcon), and cleadew and cleadew GP (Ophtecs) were tested. Their ability to inactivate HCoV was evaluated using contact times of 4 and 6 h as well as 1% and 10% of virus inoculum.

Results: Non-oxidative systems (Biotrue, Boston Simplus, and OPTI-FREE) did not exhibit a significant log10 reduction compared to controls for the two viral strains for either incubation time (all p > 0.05) when 10% tests were performed. For the 1% test, while Boston Simplus and OPTI-FREE exhibited a significant log10 reduction of both HCoV-229E (after 6 h) and HCoV-OC43 (after either 4 or 6 h incubation), those products showed less than 1 log10 reduction of the two infectious viruses. Oxidative systems based on hydrogen peroxide or povidone-iodine showed a significant log10 reduction compared with the controls for both HCoV-229E and HCoV-OC43 in all tested conditions (all p < 0.01). Clear Care led to virus inactivation to below the limit of quantification for tests performed with 1% of inoculum after 6 h incubation, while cleadew and cleadew GP led to inactivation of the two viruses to below the limit of quantification in all tested conditions.

Conclusion: Oxidative CL disinfection systems showed significant virucidal activity against HCoV-229E and HCoV-OC43, while non-oxidative systems showed minimal ability to inactivate the HCoV species examined.

Lourenco Nogueira,C., Boegel,S. C., Shukla,M., Ngo,W., Jones,L. Aucoin,M. G. The impact of a rub and rinse regimen on removal of human coronaviruses from contemporary contact lens materials Contact Lens Anterior Eye 2022;Online ahead of print101719 [ Show Abstract ]

Purpose
To assess the influence of contemporary contact lens (CL) materials on human coronavirus attachment and the influence of a rub and rinse step to remove these viruses.

Methods
The binding rates of HCoV-229E and HCoV-OC43 to eight soft CL materials and four rigid gas permeable materials were analyzed. The impact of a rub and rinse step to remove these viruses from all materials was examined. The efficacy of Biotrue (Bausch & Lomb), OPTI-FREE Puremoist (Alcon), Clear Care (Alcon) and cleadew (Ophtecs) to remove virus contamination from two representative soft lens materials (etafilcon A and lotrafilcon B) was also determined.

Results
Approximately 102 to 103 infectious viral particles were recovered from each CL material. Although some materials were more prone to coronavirus adhesion, contamination of both viral types was reduced to below the limit of quantification (LQ) from all materials using a simple saline rinse step. Exposure to Clear Care and cleadew reduced the number of infectious viral particles from both etafilcon A and lotrafilcon B to below the LQ, while for Biotrue and OPTI-FREE Puremoist, infectious viral particles were reduced to below the LQ only when additional rub and rinse steps were included.

Conclusion
Human coronavirus contamination can be easily removed from CL surfaces. Although CL care products containing hydrogen peroxide and povidone-iodine efficiently removed virus contamination from CL surfaces without the need for a rub and rinse step, a full regimen including rub and rinse steps is crucial when using CL care products based on non-oxidative systems.