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Peer-reviewed articles


Abdi,B., Mofidfar,M., Hassanpout,F., Cilingir,E. K., Kalajahi,S., Milani,P. K., Ghanbarzadeh,M., Fadel,D., Barnett,M., Ta,C. N., Leblanc,R. M., Chauhan,A., Abbasi,F. Therapeutic contact lenses for the treatment of corneal and ocular surface diseases: Advances in extended and targeted drug delivery International Journal of Pharmaceutics 2023;638(May):122740 [ Show Abstract ]

The eye is one of the most important organs in the human body providing critical information on the environment. Many corneal diseases can lead to vision loss affecting the lives of people around the world. Ophthalmic drug delivery has always been a major challenge in the medical sciences. Since traditional methods are less efficient (∼5%) at delivering drugs to ocular tissues, contact lenses have generated growing interest in ocular drug delivery due to their potential to enhance drug bioavailability in ocular tissues. The main techniques used to achieve sustained release are discussed in this review, including soaking in drug solutions, incorporating drug into multilayered contact lenses, use of vitamin E barriers, molecular imprinting, nanoparticles, micelles and liposomes. The most clinically relevant results on different eye pathologies are presented. In addition, this review summarizes the benefits of contact lenses over eye drops, strategies for incorporating drugs into lenses to achieve sustained release, results of in vitro and in vivo studies, and recent advances in the commercialization of therapeutic contact lenses for allergic conjunctivitis.

Woods,C., Naroo,S., Zeri,F., Bakkar,M., Barodawala,F., Evans,V., Fadel,D., Kalikivayi,L., Lira,M., Maseedupally,V., Trave Huarte,S., Eperjesi,F. Evidence for commonly used teaching, learning and assessment methods in contact lens clinical skills education Contact Lens Anterior Eye 2023;46(2):101821 [ Show Abstract ]

Evidence based practice is now an important part of healthcare education. The aim of this narrative literature review was to determine what evidence exists on the efficacy of commonly used teaching and learning and assessment methods in the realm of contact lens skills education (CLE) in order to provide insights into best practice. A summary of the global regulation and provision of postgraduate learning and continuing professional development in CLE is included.

An expert panel of educators was recruited and completed a literature review of current evidence of teaching and learning and assessment methods in healthcare training, with an emphasis on health care, general optometry and CLE.

No direct evidence of benefit of teaching and learning and assessment methods in CLE were found. There was evidence for the benefit of some teaching and learning and assessment methods in other disciplines that could be transferable to CLE and could help students meet the intended learning outcomes. There was evidence that the following teaching and learning methods helped health-care and general optometry students meet the intended learning outcomes; clinical teaching and learning, flipped classrooms, clinical skills videos and clerkships. For assessment these methods were; essays, case presentations, objective structured clinical examinations, self-assessment and formative assessment. There was no evidence that the following teaching and learning methods helped health-care and general optometry students meet the intended learning outcomes; journal clubs and case discussions. Nor was any evidence found for the following assessment methods; multiple-choice questions, oral examinations, objective structured practical examinations, holistic assessment, and summative assessment.

Investigation into the efficacy of common teaching and learning and assessment methods in CLE are required and would be beneficial for the entire community of contact lens educators, and other disciplines that wish to adapt this approach of evidence-based teaching.


Vincent,S. J., Cho,P., Yin Chan,K., Fadel,D., Ghorbani-Mojarrad,N., González-Méijome,J. M., Johnson,L., Michaud,L., Simard,P., Jones,L. CLEAR - Orthokeratology Contact Lens Anterior Eye 2021;44(2):240-269 [ Show Abstract ]

Orthokeratology (ortho-k) is the process of deliberately reshaping the anterior cornea by utilising specialty contact lenses to temporarily and reversibly reduce refractive error after lens removal. Modern ortho-k utilises reverse geometry lens designs, made with highly oxygen permeable rigid materials, worn overnight to reshape the anterior cornea and provide temporary correction of refractive error. More recently, ortho-k has been extensively used to slow the progression of myopia in children.

This report reviews the practice of ortho-k, including its history, mechanisms of refractive and ocular changes, current use in the correction of myopia, astigmatism, hyperopia, and presbyopia, and standard of care. Suitable candidates for ortho-k are described, along with the fitting process, factors impacting success, and the potential options for using newer lens designs. Ocular changes associated with ortho-k, such as alterations in corneal thickness, development of microcysts, pigmented arcs, and fibrillary lines are reviewed. The safety of ortho-k is extensively reviewed, along with an overview of non-compliant behaviours and appropriate disinfection regimens. Finally, the role of ortho-k in myopia management for children is discussed in terms of efficacy, safety, and potential mechanisms of myopia control, including the impact of factors such as initial fitting age, baseline refractive error, the role of peripheral defocus, higher order aberrations, pupil size, and treatment zone size.

Continuing Education Presentations


Carrasquillo K, Fadel D. Fitting, evaluating, and troubleshooting the fit FitAcademy, Boston, USA, Sep 15, 2023

Fadel D. Expert Panel Discussion FitAcademy, Boston, USA, Sep 16, 2023

Fadel D. Therapeutic Contact lenses. How to manage each individual case? IPEC Conference Contactologia Especializada. Buenos Aires, Argentina, Aug 3, 2023

Fadel D. Meet the experts: Which lens to apply in irregular corneas? IPEC Conference Contactologia Especializada. Buenos Aires, Argentina, Aug 3, 2023

Fadel D. Scleral lens complications and management. IPEC Conference Contactologia Especializada. Buenos Aires, Argentina, Aug 3, 2023

Fadel D. Take Control of Your Scleral Fitting International Congress of Scleral Contact (ICSC), Florida USA, Jul 28, 2023

Fadel D. Scleral Lenses Using WAVE Design Software: Once You Start, There’s no Going Back Global Specialty Lens Symposium, Las Vegas, Jan 20, 2023

Fadel D, Dutta D. Specialist Lens Cases British Contact Lens Association Clinical Conference & Exhibition, Manchester, Jun 10, 2023

Fadel D, Frogozo M. Optical Challenges When Fitting Scleral Lenses Global Specialty Lens Symposium, Las Vegas, Jan 21, 2023

Fadel D, jedlicka J, Gelles J, Sindt C. The Future of Contact Lens Fitting Global Specialty Lens Symposium, Las Vegas, Jan 20, 2023

Fadel D, Weshefsky T. Advanced Specialty Lens Designs Global Specialty Lens Symposium, Las Vegas, Jan 20, 2023


Barnett M, Fadel D, Gelles J, Sclafani L. Panel Discussion: International Keratoconus Academy (IKA) Session: New thoughts on keratoconus prevalence and its impact on clinical management The Summit of Specialty Contacts, Sorrento, Italy, Oct 14, 2022

Eiden B, Gelles J, Fadel D, Morgenstern A, Sclafani L, Sindt C. Workshop: Adapting to the new normal with scleral lens empirical design using advanced technology American Academy of Optometry, San Diego, 2022

Fadel D. “I did it my way”… How to fit without advanced technology The Summit of Specialty Contacts, Sorrento, Italy, Oct 16, 2022

Fadel D. Scleral lens fitting with Boston® materials CLASS Symposium 2022, Cartagena, Colombia, Nov 4, 2022

Fadel D. Scleral lenses: Procedure for correct fitting CLASS Symposium 2022, Cartagena, Colombia, Nov 3, 2022

Fadel D, Howard N. Panelist: British Contact Lens Association (BCLA): Pandemic Positives The Summit of Specialty Contacts, Sorrento, Italy, Oct 14, 2022

Fadel D, van der Worp E, Norvik Jervel A, Morgan P. Panel Discussion: Keratconus detection and its management with specialty contact lenses Specsavers Clinical Conference (Virtual), Copenhagen, Denmark, Oct 6, 2022

Professional Publications


Fadel D. Preventing and Managing Edema with Scleral Lenses Review of Cornea and Contact Lenses 2023, March/April: 18-21

Fadel D.. Three of a kind: Examples of challenges presented with scleral lens patients and how to overcome them. Contact Lens Spectrum 2023;38, July: 32-36, 38-40, 51

Walker M, Bergmanson J, Schornack M, Fadel D. IFSLR 2023 RECAP Contact Lens Spectrum 2023;38, September: 37-41


Walker M, Bergmanson J, Fadel D, Johns L. Evidence-based Research and Clinical Practice Contact Lens Spectrum 2022;37, October: 38-43


Fadel D, Walsh K.. COVID-19, quando l'uso delle lenti è sicurio B2Eyes 2020;March. [ Show Abstract ]

Recentemente alcuni articoli di giornali sul possibile contagio da coronavirus tramite lenti a contatto e alcune organizzazioni sanitarie che consigliano il passaggio in questa fase agli occhiali anziché l’uso delle lenti a contatto sollevano facilmente la preoccupazione che l'utilizzo delle lac potrebbe non essere sicuro durante la pandemia da Covid-19. Questa inondazione di informazioni fuorvianti ha portato ricercatori di spicco nel panorama internazionale, da Canada, Regno Unito e Stati Uniti, a rispondere. Lyndon Jones, direttore del Center for Ocular Research & Education (CORE) presso l'Università di Waterloo (Canada), Philip Morgan, direttore di Eurolens Research presso l'Università di Manchester (Regno Unito), e Jason Nichols, vicepresidente associato di ricerca e docente all'Università dell'Alabama presso la Birmingham School of Optometry (Stati Uniti) e direttore editoriale di Contact Lens Spectrum, hanno fornito le seguenti informazioni sulla sicurezza dell'uso delle lenti a contatto.



Fadel D. Scleral lens design and calculation of parameters based on corneal topography. Workshop. 2023.