Peer-reviewed Articles

Please use the year list below to look at past peer-reviewed articles.


Desai,D. T., Maulvi,F. A., Desai,A. R., Shukla,M. R., Desai,B. V., Khadela,A. D., Shetty,K. H., Shah,D. O., Willcox,M. D. P. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of cyclosporine-graphene oxide laden hydrogel contact lenses International Journal of Pharmaceutics 2022;613121414 [ Show Abstract ]

Drug-eluting contact lens can substitute the multiple eye drop therapy. However, loading hydrophobic drug like cyclosporine in the contact lens is very challenging, due to low drug uptake (via soaking method); and alteration in the swelling and optical properties which restricts its clinical application. To address the above issues, graphene oxide (GO, large surface area with oxygen containing functional groups) was incorporated in the contact lenses during fabrication. These GO-laden contact lenses (SM-GO-Cys) as well as blank contact lenses (SM-Cys) were soaked in the solution of cyclosporine. Alternatively, cyclosporine-laden contact lenses (DL-Cys-20) and cyclosporine-GO-laden contact lenses (DL-Cys-20-GO) were fabricated by adding drug and drug-GO (at various level of GO) during fabrication, respectively. Contact angle and swelling data showed increase in water holding capacity of GO laden contact lenses. Optical property was significantly improved due to molecular dispersion of drug on the surface of GO sheets. The drug uptake and in vitro release profile was improved with GO-laden contact lenses by soaking method (SM-GO-Cys-400n) due to hydrophobic interactions between GO and drug. Adding cyclosporine-GO (DL-Cys-20-GO-800n) during fabrication significantly improved drug release kinetics with higher drug leaching (during extraction and sterilization) due to increased swelling, improved dissolution and molecular dispersion of drug on GO sheets. Ocular irritation and histopathological studies demonstrated the safety of GO-contact lens. The in vivo drug release studies in the rabbit eye showed significant improvement in mean residence time (MRT) and area under the curve (AUC) using DL-Cys-20-GO-800n contact lens compared to eye drop solution with reduction in protein adherence value. The study demonstrated that the incorporation of GO into the contact lens can control the release of cyclosporine as well as improved the lens swelling and transmittance properties.

Efron,N., Jones,L. W., Morgan,P. B., Nichols,J. J. Bibliometric analysis of the literature relating to silicone hydrogel and daily disposable contact lenses Journal of Optometry 2022;15(1):44-52 [ Show Abstract ]

Publication metrics are derived for the fields of silicone hydrogel (SH) and daily disposable (DD) contact lenses.

A search of the Scopus database for papers in the fields of SH and DD contact lenses found 979 SH and 291 DD papers. Subject-specific h-indices for SH lenses (hSH-index) and DD lenses (hDD-index) were derived, in relation to five categories – authors, institutions, countries and journals – to serve as measures of impact. A short list of the most impactful entities was generated for each of the above five categories in the SH and DD fields.

A paper entitled “Soft contact lens polymers: An evolution” by Nicholson and Vogt was the most highly cited article (495 citations) in both SH and DD fields. The most impactful entities for the SH and DD fields were: authors – Lyndon Jones (hSH = 33) and Philip Morgan (hDD = 15); institutions – the University of Waterloo (hSH = 37) and the University of New South Wales (hDD = 15); countries – the United States (hSH = 45) and the United Kingdom (hDD = 24); and journals – Optometry and Vision Science (hSH = 33) and Contact Lens and Anterior Eye (hDD = 17). Overall, the SH field (hSH = 64) is far more impactful than the DD field (hDD = 34).

Impactful papers, authors, institutions, countries and journals in the SH and DD fields are identified. Optometry is revealed as the leading profession in relation to SH and DD publications.

Khanal,S., Bai,Y., Ngo,W., Nichols,K. K., Wilson,L., Barnes,S., Nichols,J. J. Human meibum and tear film derived cholesteryl and wax esters in meibomian gland dysfunction and tear film structure: Cholesteryl and wax esters in meibomian gland dysfunction Ocular Surface 2022;23(January):12-23 [ Show Abstract ]

This study evaluated the presence and roles of cholesteryl esters (CEs) and wax esters (WEs) from human tear film and meibum in meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD).

Out of 195 enrolled subjects, 164 and 179 subjects provided tear and meibum samples, respectively. Subjects were classified into normal, asymptomatic MGD, MGD, and mixed (MGD & aqueous deficient). The precorneal tear film (PCTF) thinning rate (evaporation) was measured using optical coherence tomography. Lipids extracted from tear and meibum samples were infused into a SCIEX 5600 TripleTOF mass spectrometer. CE and WE intensities quantified with Analyst 1.7 TF and LipidView 1.3 were compared across disease groups in MetaboAnalyst 5.0 and correlated with PCTF thinning rates.

The numbers of unique CEs and WEs identified in the samples were 125 and 86, respectively. Unsupervised Principal Component (PC) analysis and supervised Partial Least Square Discriminant analysis exhibited little separation among groups for both CEs and WEs in tears and meibum. Spearman's correlation analyses showed no association between either the first or second PC scores with PCTF thinning rates.

The abundances of human PCTF and meibum-derived CEs and WEs were independent of MGD disease status and PCTF thinning (evaporation). CEs and WEs alterations do not contribute to alterations in tear film dynamics in MGD, such as has been demonstrated by the (O-acyl) ω-hydroxy fatty acids (OAHFAs).

Ng,A. Y., Woods,J., Jahn,T., Jones,L., Ritter,J. Effect of a novel omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid supplement on dry eye disease: a 3-month randomized controlled trial Optometry & Vision Science 2022;99(1):67-75 [ Show Abstract ]

Supplementing diet with a novel combination of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids significantly improved symptoms in extremely symptomatic participants with dry eye disease (DED).

This study aimed to determine the effect of daily intake of a novel combination of essential fatty acids on signs and symptoms of DED.

Participants with moderate to severe DED were enrolled in a prospective, randomized, double-masked parallel group study. Participants ingested either the treatment supplement containing omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids (1200 mg eicosapentaenoic acid, 300 mg docosahexaenoic acid, 150 mg γ-linoleic acid) or the placebo (coconut and olive oil) daily for 3 months. To determine compliance, Omega-3 Index blood tests were conducted. At baseline and at 1 and 3 months, the following assessments were conducted: Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire and Symptom Assessment Questionnaire in Dry Eye, noninvasive tear breakup time, tear meniscus height, tear osmolarity, ocular redness, surface staining, Schirmer test, and meibography.

Fifty participants (mean ± standard deviation baseline OSDI score, 52.2 ± 16.5) completed the study: 24 randomized to treatment and 26 randomized to placebo. Although there was an improvement in OSDI score at 3 months for both groups (treatment: −13.4 points, P = .003; placebo: −7.8 points, P = .02), participants with baseline OSDI scores >52 demonstrated an even larger significant improvement in symptoms with the treatment at 3 months compared with baseline (n = 13, −20.8 points, P = .002). There were no significant changes in any of the ocular assessments at 1 or 3 months (all P > .05). After 3 months, Omega-3 Index increased by 34% in the treatment group (baseline, 5.3 ± 0.8; 3 months, 8.0 ± 2.1; P < .001) and did not change in the placebo group (baseline, 4.8 ± 0.8; 3 months, 4.8 ± 0.6; P = .95).

Supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and γ-linoleic acid resulted in a significant and clinically meaningful improvement of dry eye symptoms in extremely symptomatic participants with DED (OSDI ≥52).

Nichols,J. J., Morgan,P. M., Efron,N, Jones,L. W. Global optometrist research ranking derived from a science-wide author database of standardised citation indicators Clinical and Experimental Optometry 2022;105(1):20-25 [ Show Abstract ]

Clinical relevance
Publications in refereed scientific journals provide a rigorous research base that underpins clinical optometric practice. Leading optometrists who generate this literature can be identified and ranked using standardised citation indicators.

This work seeks to identify and rank all optometrists included in a Science-Wide author database of standardised citation indicators (S-W) and to compare this ranking with the Global Optometrist Top 200 Research Ranking (T200).

A search was conducted for the names of all optometrists in the T200 who were included in the S-W, which is a world-wide listing of the top 2% of scientists in each of 174 subfield disciplines, ranked according to a composite citation indicator (cns) that excludes self-citations and corrects for multiple authorships and author order.

The names of 66 optometrists are found in the S-W. Of these, 58 are designated as working in the primary sub-field ‘Ophthalmology & Optometry’; this listing, in rank-order of cns, is referred to as the ‘S-W-derived Optometrist Research Ranking’ (S-WORR). Australian optometrist Nathan Efron is ranked #1 in the S-WORR. The number (%) of optometrists in the S-WORR from each country is: the United States – 26 (45%), Australia – 12 (21%), the United Kingdom – 11 (19%), Canada – 5 (9%), Spain – 2 (3%), Hong Kong – 1 (2%) and South Africa – 1 (2%). The universities housing the equal highest number of optometrists in the S-WORR (five each) are the University of California, Berkeley, USA; the University of New South Wales, Australia; and Queensland University of Technology, Australia. There is a moderately strong correlation between T200 and S-WORR rankings (ρ = 0.6017, N = 58, p < 0.0001).

The S-WORR represents an elite cohort of optometrists who ought to be celebrated for their outstanding, leading and impactful contributions to optometric research.