Publications

Showing 25 results out of 521 in total.

Weeks,A., Subbaraman,L. N., Jones,L., Sheardown,H. Physical entrapment of hyaluronic acid during synthesis results in extended release from model hydrogel and silicone hydrogel contact lens materials Eye and Contact Lens 2013;39(2):179-185 [ Show Abstract ]

OBJECTIVES:: This study was designed to assess the duration of hyaluronic acid (HA) release from model contact lens materials when HA was physically incorporated into the hydrogel during synthesis and to assess the effects of the HA release on lysozyme sorption. METHODS:: Model conventional and silicone hydrogel contact lens materials containing HA of various molecular weights as a releasable wetting agent were prepared. The HA was released into phosphate-buffered saline and MilliQ water, and the release was monitored using ultraviolet spectroscopy. Hyaluronic acid release was quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The effect of the releasable HA on lysozyme sorption to the materials was also analyzed using 125-I-labeled protein. RESULTS:: Hyaluronic acid loaded into the materials using this method could be released from conventional hydrogel materials for 21 days; the model silicone hydrogels showed release of more than 7 weeks. With one exception, the releasable HA decreased lysozyme sorption. CONCLUSIONS:: Hyaluronic acid physically incorporated into contact lens materials during synthesis may therefore be released for extended periods of time of up to 7 weeks. Hyaluronic acid release leads to decreased protein adsorption in general. This method has potential for modification of conventional and silicone hydrogel lenses with releasable HA as a wetting agent. © 2013 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Willcox,M. D. P., Argüeso,P., Georgiev,G. A., Holopainen,J. M., Laurie,G. W., Millar,T. J., Papas,E. B., Rolland,J. P., Schmidt,T. A., Stahl,U., Suarez,T., Subbaraman,L. N., Uçakhan,O. Ö., Jones,L. TFOS DEWS II Tear Film Report Ocular Surface 2017;15(3):366-403 [ Show Abstract ]

The members of the Tear Film Subcommittee reviewed the role of the tear film in dry eye disease (DED). The Subcommittee reviewed biophysical and biochemical aspects of tears and how these change in DED. Clinically, DED is characterized by loss of tear volume, more rapid breakup of the tear film and increased evaporation of tears from the ocular surface. The tear film is composed of many substances including lipids, proteins, mucins and electrolytes. All of these contribute to the integrity of the tear film but exactly how they interact is still an area of active research. Tear film osmolarity increases in DED. Changes to other components such as proteins and mucins can be used as biomarkers for DED. The Subcommittee recommended areas for future research to advance our understanding of the tear film and how this changes with DED. The final report was written after review by all Subcommittee members and the entire TFOS DEWS II membership.

Willcox,M. D. P., Walsh,K. Nichols,J. J., Morgan,P. B., Jones,L. W. The ocular surface, coronaviruses and COVID‐19 Clinical and Experimental Optometry 2020;103(4):418-424 [ Show Abstract ]

The ocular surface has been suggested as a site of infection with Coronavirus‐2 (SARS‐CoV‐2) responsible for the coronavirus disease‐19 (COVID‐19). This review examines the evidence for this hypothesis, and its implications for clinical practice. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus‐2 (SARS‐CoV‐2), responsible for the COVID‐19 pandemic, is transmitted by person‐to‐person contact, via airborne droplets, or through contact with contaminated surfaces. SARS‐CoV‐2 binds to angiotensin converting enzyme‐2 (ACE2) to facilitate infection in humans. This review sets out to evaluate evidence for the ocular surface as a route of infection. A literature search in this area was conducted on 15 April 2020 using the Scopus database. In total, 287 results were returned and reviewed. There is preliminary evidence for ACE2 expression on corneal and conjunctival cells, but most of the other receptors to which coronaviruses bind appear to be found under epithelia of the ocular surface. Evidence from animal studies is limited, with a single study suggesting viral particles on the eye can travel to the lung, resulting in very mild infection. Coronavirus infection is rarely associated with conjunctivitis, with occasional cases reported in patients with confirmed COVID‐19, along with isolated cases of conjunctivitis as a presenting sign. Coronaviruses have been rarely isolated from tears or conjunctival swabs. The evidence suggests coronaviruses are unlikely to bind to ocular surface cells to initiate infection. Additionally, hypotheses that the virus could travel from the nasopharynx or through the conjunctival capillaries to the ocular surface during infection are probably incorrect. Conjunctivitis and isolation of the virus from the ocular surface occur only rarely, and overwhelmingly in patients with confirmed COVID‐19. Necessary precautions to prevent person‐to‐person transmission should be employed in clinical practice throughout the pandemic, and patients should be reminded to maintain good hygiene practices.

Willcox,M., Keir,N., Maseedupallu,V., Masoudi,S., McDermott,A., Mobeen,R., Purslow,C., Santodomingo-Rubio,J., Tavazzi,S., Zeri,F., Jones,L. W. CLEAR - Contact lens wettability, cleaning, disinfection and interactions with tears Contact Lens Anterior Eye 2021;44(2):157-191 [ Show Abstract ]

Contact lens materials have undergone significant changes over the past 20 years, particularly with respect to the introduction of silicone hydrogel materials. Whilst this development addressed hypoxic issues, other important areas relating to contact lens success, notably comfort, require further research.

Contact lens wettability remains a crucially important part of biocompatibility. Contact lenses can be made more wettable by incorporation of surfactants into blister packs, internal wetting agents, surface treatments or care solutions. However, there remains no clear association between contact lens wettability and comfort, making it challenging to determine the potential for these approaches to be of significant clinical benefit. Most contact lenses are used on a daily wear, reusable basis, which requires them to be disinfected when not worn. The ideal disinfecting solution would also improve comfort during wear. However, balancing these requirements with other factors, including biocompatibility, remains a challenge. Soft lens materials invariably take up and subsequently release certain components of disinfecting solutions onto the ocular surface. This may affect tear film stability and the normal ocular microbiome, and further research is needed in this area to determine whether this has any affect on comfort. Finally, contact lens materials sorb components of the tear film, and these interactions are complex and may change the biochemistry of the tear film, which in turn may affect their comfort.

In conclusion, the interaction between lens materials, tear film and disinfection solution plays an important role in the biocompatibility of lenses. However, the exact role and whether this can be altered to improve biocompatibility and comfort during wear remains debatable. This report summarises the best available evidence to examine this complex relationship and the opportunities for practitioners to enhance in-eye comfort of contemporary lenses, along with providing suggestions for areas of study that may provide further information on this topic.

Wolffsohn,J. S., Arita,R., Chalmers,R., Djalilian,A., Dogru,M., Dumbleton,K., Gupta,P. K., Karpecki,P., Lazreg,S., Pult,H., Sullivan,B. D., Tomlinson,A., Tong,L., Villani,E., Yoon,K. C., Jones,L., Craig,J. P. TFOS DEWS II Diagnostic Methodology report Ocular Surface 2017;15(3):539-574 [ Show Abstract ]

The role of the Tear Film and Ocular Surface Society (TFOS) Dry Eye Workshop (DEWS) II Diagnostic Methodology Subcommittee was 1) to identify tests used to diagnose and monitor dry eye disease (DED), 2) to identify those most appropriate to fulfil the definition of DED and its sub-classifications, 3) to propose the most appropriate order and technique to conduct these tests in a clinical setting, and 4) to provide a differential diagnosis for DED and distinguish conditions where DED is a comorbidity. Prior to diagnosis, it is important to exclude conditions that can mimic DED with the aid of triaging questions. Symptom screening with the DEQ-5 or OSDI confirms that a patient might have DED and triggers the conduct of diagnostic tests of (ideally non-invasive) breakup time, osmolarity and ocular surface staining with fluorescein and lissamine green (observing the cornea, conjunctiva and eyelid margin). Meibomian gland dysfunction, lipid thickness/dynamics and tear volume assessment and their severity allow sub-classification of DED (as predominantly evaporative or aqueous deficient) which informs the management of DED. Videos of these diagnostic and sub-classification techniques are available on the TFOS website. It is envisaged that the identification of the key tests to diagnose and monitor DED and its sub-classifications will inform future epidemiological studies and management clinical trials, improving comparability, and enabling identification of the sub-classification of DED in which different management strategies are most efficacious.

Wolffsohn,J. S., Calossi,A., Cho,P., Gifford,K., Jones,L., Jones,D., Guthrie,S., Li,M., Lipener,C., Logan,N. S., Malet,F., Peixoto-de-Matos,S. C., González-Méijome,J. M., Nichols,J. J., Orr,J. B., Santodomingo-Rubido,J., Schaefer,T., Thite,N., van der Worp,E., Tarutta,E., Iomdina,E., Ali,B. M., Villa-Collar,C., Abesamis-Dichoso,C., Chen,C., Pult,H., Blaser,P., Parra Sandra Johanna,G., Iqbal,F., Ramos,R., Carrillo Orihuela,G., Boychev,N. Global trends in myopia management attitudes and strategies in clinical practice – 2019 Update Cont Lens Anterior Eye 2020;43(1):9-17 [ Show Abstract ]

Purpose: A survey in 2015 identified a high level of eye care practitioner concern about myopia with a reported moderately high level of activity, but the vast majority still prescribed single vision interventions to young myopes. This research aimed to update these findings 4 years later. Methods: A self-administrated, internet-based questionnaire was distributed in eight languages, through professional bodies to eye care practitioners globally. The questions examined: awareness of increasing myopia prevalence, perceived efficacy of available strategies and adoption levels of such strategies, and reasons for not adopting specific strategies. Results: Of the 1336 respondents, concern was highest (9.0 ± 1.6; p < 0.001) in Asia and lowest (7.6 ± 2.2; p < 0.001) in Australasia. Practitioners from Asia also considered their clinical practice of myopia control to be the most active (7.7 ± 2.3; p < 0.001), the North American practitioners being the least active (6.3 ± 2.9; p < 0.001). Orthokeratology was perceived to be the most effective method of myopia control, followed by pharmaceutical approaches and approved myopia control soft contact lenses (p < 0.001). Although significant intra-regional differences existed, overall, most practitioners did not consider single-vision distance under-correction to be an effective strategy for attenuating myopia progression (79.6 %), but prescribed single vision spectacles or contact lenses as the primary mode of correction for myopic patients (63.6 ± 21.8 %). The main justifications for their reluctance to prescribe alternatives to single vision refractive corrections were increased cost (20.6 %) and inadequate information (17.6 %). Conclusions: While practitioner concern about myopia and the reported level of activity have increased over the last 4 years, the vast majority of eye care clinicians still prescribe single vision interventions to young myopes. With recent global consensus evidence-based guidelines having been published, it is hoped that this will inform the practice of myopia management in future.

Wolffsohn,J. S., Calossi,A., Cho,P., Gifford,K., Jones,L., Li,M., Lipener,C., Logan,N. S, Malet,F., Matos,S., Meijome,J. M. G., Nichols,J .J., Orr, J.B., Santodomingo-Rubido,J., Schaefer,T., Thite,N., van der Worp,E., Zvirgzdina, M. Global trends in myopia management attitudes and strategies in clinical practice. Contact Lens and Anterior Eye 2016;39(2):106-116

Wolffsohn,J. S., Dhallu,S., Aujla,M., Laughton,D., Tempany,K., Powell,D., Gifford,K., Gifford,P., Wan,K., Cho,P, Stahl,U., Woods,J. International multi-centre study of potential benefits of ultraviolet radiation protection using contact lenses Contact Lens Anterior Eye 2022;45(6):101593 [ Show Abstract ]

Purpose
To examine the effects of long-term ultraviolet radiation (UVR) blocking wearing contact lenses on ocular surface health, eye focus and macular pigment.

Method
210 pre-presbyopic patients were recruited from Birmingham UK, Brisbane Australia, Hong Kong China, Houston USA and Waterloo Canada (n = 42 at each site). All patients had worn contact lenses for ≥ 5 years, half (test group) of a material incorporating a UVR-blocking filter. Ocular health was assessed using slit-lamp biomicroscopy and UV autofluorescence. Accommodation was measured subjectively with a push-up test and overcoming lens-induced defocus. Objective stimulus response and dynamic measures of the accommodative response were quantified with an open-field aberrometer. Macular pigment optical density (MPOD) was assessed using heterochromatic flicker photometry (MPS II).

Results
The two groups of participants were matched for age, sex, race, body-mass-index, diet, lifestyle, UVR exposure, refractive error and visual acuity. Limbal (p = 0.035), but not bulbar conjunctival redness (p = 0.903) was lower in eyes that had worn UVR-blocking contact lenses compared to controls. The subjective (8.0 ± 3.7D vs 7.3 ± 3.3D; p = 0.125) and objective (F = 1.255, p = 0.285) accommodative response was higher in the test group, but the differences did not reach significance. However, the accommodative latency was shorter in eyes that had worn UVR-blocking contact lenses (p = 0.003). There was no significant different in MPOD with UVR filtration (p = 0.869).

Conclusions
Blocking the transmission of UVR is beneficial in maintaining the eye’s ability to focus, suggesting that presbyopia maybe delayed in long-term UVR-blocking contact lenses wearers. These lenses also provide protection to the critical limbal region.

Wolffsohn,J. S., Dumbleton,K., Huntjens,B., Kandel,H., Koh,S., Kunnen,C. M. E., Nagra,M., Pult,H., Sulley,A. L., Vianya-Estopa,M., Walsh,K., Wong,S., Stapleton,F. CLEAR - Evidence-based contact lens practice Contact Lens Anterior Eye 2021;44(2):368-397 [ Show Abstract ]

Evidence-based contact lens -->practice involves finding, appraising and applying research findings as the basis for patient management decisions. These decisions should be informed by the strength of the research study designs that address the question, as well as by the experience of the practitioner and the preferences and environment of the patient. This reports reviews and summarises the published research evidence that is available to inform soft and rigid contact lens history and symptoms taking, anterior eye health examination (including the optimised use of ophthalmic dyes, grading scales, imaging techniques and lid eversion), considerations for contact lens selection (including the ocular surface measurements required to select the most appropriate lens parameter, lens modality and material selection), evaluation of lens fit, prescribing (teaching self-application and removal, adaptation, care regimen and cleaning instructions, as well as -->minimising risks of lens wear through encouraging compliance) and an aftercare routine.

Wolffsohn,J. S., Flitcroft,D. I., Gifford,K. L., Jong,M., Jones,L., Klaver,C. C. W., Logan,N. S., Naidoo,K., Resnikoff,S., Sankaridurg,P., Smith,E. L. 3rd, Troilo,D., Wildsoet,C. F. IMI - Myopia Control Reports Overview and Introduction Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2019;60(3):M1-M19 [ Show Abstract ]

With the growing prevalence of myopia, already at epidemic levels in some countries, there is an urgent need for new management approaches. However, with the increasing number of research publications on the topic of myopia control, there is also a clear necessity for agreement and guidance on key issues, including on how myopia should be defined and how interventions, validated by well-conducted clinical trials, should be appropriately and ethically applied. The International Myopia Institute (IMI) reports the critical review and synthesis of the research evidence to date, from animal models, genetics, clinical studies, and randomized controlled trials, by more than 85 multidisciplinary experts in the field, as the basis for the recommendations contained therein. As background to the need for myopia control, the risk factors for myopia onset and progression are reviewed. The seven generated reports are summarized: (1) Defining and Classifying Myopia, (2) Experimental Models of Emmetropization and Myopia, (3) Myopia Genetics, (4) Interventions for Myopia Onset and Progression, (5) Clinical Myopia Control Trials and Instrumentation, (6) Industry Guidelines and Ethical Considerations for Myopia Control, and (7) Clinical Myopia Management Guidelines.

Wolffsohn,J. S., Kollbaum,P. S., Berntsen,D. A., Atchison,D. A., Benavente,A., Bradley,A., Buckhurst,H., Collins,M., Fujikado,T., Hiraoka,T., Hirota,M., Jones,D., Logan,N. S., Lundström,L., Torii,H., Read,S. A., Naidoo,K. IMI - Clinical Myopia Control Trials and Instrumentation Report Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2019;60(3):M132-M160 [ Show Abstract ]

The evidence-basis based on existing myopia control trials along with the supporting academic literature were reviewed; this informed recommendations on the outcomes suggested from clinical trials aimed at slowing myopia progression to show the effectiveness of treatments and the impact on patients. These outcomes were classified as primary (refractive error and/or axial length), secondary (patient reported outcomes and treatment compliance), and exploratory (peripheral refraction, accommodative changes, ocular alignment, pupil size, outdoor activity/lighting levels, anterior and posterior segment imaging, and tissue biomechanics). The currently available instrumentation, which the literature has shown to best achieve the primary and secondary outcomes, was reviewed and critiqued. Issues relating to study design and patient selection were also identified. These findings and consensus from the International Myopia Institute members led to final recommendations to inform future instrumentation development and to guide clinical trial protocols.

Wolffsohn,J. S., Morgan,P. B., Barnett,M., Downie,L. E., Jacobs,D. S. Jones,L. W., Richdale, K., Stapleton,F., Vincent,S. J., Willcox,M. Contact Lens Evidence-Based Academic Reports (CLEAR) Contact Lens Anterior Eye 2021;44(2):129-131 [ Show Abstract ]

Since contact lenses were invented in 1887, innovations have included advances in optical design, material, care systems, wear modality, lens size, lens shape and applications. Over 19,000 peer reviewed academic papers on the contact lenses have been published. The Contact Lens Evidence-based Academic Reports (CLEAR) follow the exemplary work of organisations such as the Tear Film and Ocular Surface Society dry eye, meibomian gland disease, contact lens discomfort and dry eye II workshops and the International Myopia Institute white papers on myopia control, in collating and appraising the academic literature in an ocular field of interest. CLEAR represent the work of nearly 100 multidisciplinary experts in the field, who set out to critically review, synthesise and summarise the research evidence on contact lenses to date; this serves to inform both clinical practice, manufacturing innovation and future research directions.

Wolffsohn,J. S., Travé-Huarte,S., Jones,L., Craig,J. P., Wang,M. T. M., the TFOS ambassadors. Clinical practice patterns in the management of dry eye disease: A TFOS international survey Ocular Surface 2021;21(July):78-86 [ Show Abstract ]

Purpose
To examine clinical management and prescribing patterns for dry eye disease (DED), in relation to severity and subtype, by eye care practitioners across the globe.

Methods
An online, anonymous cross-sectional survey (on Qualtrics) translated into 14 languages was distributed to eye care practitioners across the globe. The survey included six questions around the management of DED, in relation to severity and subtype.

Result
The survey was completed by 1139 eyecare professionals (37% ophthalmologists and 58% optometrists) from 51 countries. Management varied significantly by continent and country (p < 0.01). The most commonly recommended management approaches, internationally, included general advice (87%), low (85%) and high (80%) viscosity-enhancing unpreserved lubricants and lid wipes/scrubs (81%). Some treatments were prescribed largely independently of severity (e.g. artificial tears and nutritional supplements) while oral antibiotics, punctal occlusion, topical anti-inflammatory/immunosuppressants, secretagogues, biologics, therapeutic contact lenses and surgical approaches were prescribed by more practitioners as severity increased. Essential fatty acids, lipid sprays/drops, lid hygiene, warm compresses, intense pulsed light therapy and antibiotics (topical or oral) were more commonly recommended for evaporative DED, while punctal occlusion, therapeutic contact lenses, secretagogues and biologics were more commonly recommended for aqueous deficient DED.

Conclusions
DED management differs across continents and countries. A wide range of management strategies are utilised at each severity level and between subtypes. The survey results enable clinicians to benchmark their practice to that of their peers, indicate where further research is required to optimise patient management and inform industry on how best to target product development.

Wong,K. Y., Phan,C.M., Chan,Y.T., Chuy-Ying Yuen,A., Zhao,D., Chan,K. Y., Do,C. W., Chuen Lam,T., Han Qiao,J., Wulff,D., Hui,A., Jones,L., Wong,M. S. A review of using Traditional Chinese Medicine in the management of glaucoma and cataract Clinical and Experimental Optometry 2023;Online ahead of print [ Show Abstract ]

Traditional Chinese Medicine has a long history in ophthalmology in China. Over 250 kinds of Traditional Chinese Medicine have been recorded in ancient books for the management of eye diseases, which may provide an alternative or supplement to current ocular therapies. However, the core holistic philosophy of Traditional Chinese Medicine that makes it attractive can also hinder its understanding from a scientific perspective – in particular, determining true cause and effect. This review focused on how Traditional Chinese Medicine could be applied to two prevalent ocular diseases, glaucoma, and cataract. The literature on preclinical and clinical studies in both English and Chinese on the use of Traditional Chinese Medicine to treat these two diseases was reviewed. The pharmacological effects, safety profile, and drug-herb interaction of selected herbal formulas were also investigated. Finally, key considerations for conducting future Traditional Chinese Medicine studies are discussed.

Wong,S., Murphy,P.J., Jones,L. Tear evaporation rates: What does the literature tell us? Contact Lens and Anterior Eye 2018;41(3):297-306 [ Show Abstract ]

Purpose: A previous literature review reported tear evaporation rates (TERs) from studies conducted on rabbits and humans between 1941 and 2003. Closer examination of the presented data revealed inaccuracies in the reporting of some values. This paper presents updated tables of TERs using values from the original papers cited in the review, in addition to incorporating new studies published between 2003 and 2016. Methods: A copy of each paper cited in the literature review was obtained and checked against the evaporation rate reported in the review. If the expected value could not be found in the cited paper, other papers by the same author were consulted to see if the value had been reported elsewhere. A PubMed and Scopus database search was conducted to find papers published on tear evaporimetry since 2003. Results: Two new tables of TERs were created, based on the values reported by the original author. To aid in interpretation, the majority of results are expressed in units of x 10−7 g/cm2/sec. Where it was not possible to convert these values, some values are expressed as x 10−7 g/sec, x 10−7 g/sec/eye or W/min. Conclusions: Two new tables of TERs have been compiled to provide an accurate representation of the values reported in the original papers. These tables can be used as a point of reference for other researchers to compare their results.

Wong,S., Srinivasan,S., Murphy,P. J., Jones,L. Comparison of meibomian gland dropout using two infrared imaging devices Cont Lens Anterior Eye 2019;42(3):311-317 [ Show Abstract ]

Purpose: To measure the degree of meibomian gland (MG) dropout in the lower eyelid determined by analysis of images obtained from the LipiView II (LVII) and the Keratograph 5M (K5M).

Methods: The inferior eyelid of each participant was imaged in a random order using both devices. All images were subjectively assessed by a single-masked investigator to determine the extent of MG loss using the Arita 4-point meiboscore grading scale. The images were also semi-objectively analyzed with ImageJ to calculate the percentage of MG dropout, by tracing around the non-glandular area and the total exposed area of the lower lid.

Results: Twenty participants (mean age 37 years, range 23–60, 60% female) completed the study. A significant difference in meiboscore (mean ± SD) was obtained between the LVII and the K5M (1.43 ± 0.78 vs. 1.90 ± 0.81, Z = 3.25, p = 0.001). The meiboscore 95% limit of agreement (LOA) ranged from −1.88 to +0.93. A significant difference was found with mean ImageJ percentage dropout between the LVII and the K5M (31.5% vs 43.4%, t = −4.8, p = 0.00003). The percentage dropout 95% LOA ranged from −42.79% to +19.06%.

Conclusions: LVII images had significantly lower meiboscores and less percentage MG dropout. Varying amounts of dropout were observed between the devices due the amount of eyelid that was typically everted and because of differences in image quality. These results indicate that these devices should not be used interchangeably to evaluate MG dropout.

Woods,C. A. Working better with GPs: Lessons to be learned from a study of health care networks in the management of diabetes Clinical and Experimental Optometry 2005;891-2

Woods,C. A., Cumming,B. The impact of test medium on use of visual analogue scales Eye and Contact Lens 2009;35(1):6-10 [ Show Abstract ]

OBJECTIVES: Visual analog scales are frequently used as a means of allowing participants to rate symptoms during clinical trials. The accuracy and reproducibility of these scales play an important role in determining the experimental value of the data they provide. This study was initiated to compare the data collected using paper- and computer-based (Tablet PC) analog scales to better understand the variability in data provided by a visual analog scale. METHODS: Thirty participants rated ocular comfort, redness, and clarity of vision (right and left eyes) on a nondemarcated horizontal line on both paper and a Tablet PC. Measurements were taken in the morning between the hours of 8:30 and 10:30 am and again the same day between 2:30 and 4:30 pm. RESULTS: The mean difference between the measures recorded in the morning for the 2 media was 2.6 ± 0.9 (confidence intervals, 2 standard errors of the differences) units on a 100 unit scale, with the Tablet PC having the higher mean measure. The limits of agreement (2 standard deviations of the differences) was 9.4 units. Comparing the difference of the differences (1.0 ± 1.3) between the 2 methods of measure (morning vs. afternoon) the visual analog scales on the Tablet PC seemed to have good reproducibility of agreement in comparison with the paper version. CONCLUSIONS: Discrepancy analysis yielded no significant difference and slight bias between paper- and computer-based analog scales. Repeatability of measures using the Tablet PC was also demonstrated. These results suggest that the choice of medium does not significantly influence the outcome for subjective analog scales. © 2009 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.

Woods,C. A., Dumbleton,K., Jones,L., Fonn,D. Patient use of smartphones to communicate subjective data in clinical trials Optometry and Vision Science 2011;88(2):290-294 [ Show Abstract ]

Purpose. Various methods have been used in clinical trials to collect time-sensitive subjective responses, including study diaries, telephone interviews, and use of text messaging. However, all of these methods are limited by the uncertainty of when the participants enrolled in the study actually record their responses. This technical note reports on the utility of the BlackBerry smartphone to collect such data and why such a system provides advantages over other methods to report subjective ratings in clinical studies. Methods. The Centre for Contact Lens Research developed an on-line web-enabled system that permits participants to record and immediately transmit subjective rating scores in numerical form directly into a web-enabled database. This, combined with the utility of BlackBerrys, enabled time-specific e-mail requests to be sent to the study participants and then for that data to be simultaneously transmitted to the web-enabled database. This system has been used in several clinical trials conducted at the Centre for Contact Lens Research, in which data were collected at various times and in several specific locations or environments. Results. In the clinical trials conducted using this system, participants provided responses on 97.5% of occasions to the requests for data generated by the automated system. When the request was for data on a set date, this method resulted in responses of 84.1% of the time. Conclusions.The series of clinical trials reported here show the benefits of the utilization of the BlackBerry to collect time- or environment-sensitive data via a web-enabled system. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Optometry.

Woods,C. A., Jones,D. A., Jones,L. W., Morgan,P. B. A seven year survey of the contact lens prescribing habits of Canadian optometrists Optometry and Vision Science 2007;84(6):505-510 [ Show Abstract ]

PURPOSE: Little is known about the contact lens prescribing habits of optometrists in North America. The purpose of this survey was to obtain data on the types of lenses and solutions prescribed by Canadian optometrists. METHODS: One thousand Canadian optometrists were surveyed annually over seven consecutive years (2000 to 2006; n = 7000) on their contact lens prescribing preferences. Each survey requested a range of information about the contact lenses prescribed to the first 10 patients after its receipt. RESULTS: Over this time period, 1008 (14.4%) of the surveys were returned, providing data on 9383 fits. During the seven-year period, the ratio of male:female fits was 1:2 (3123:6217, 43 not reported), with a mean age of 31.3 +/- 13.6 years (range 2 to 82 years). The ratio of new fits to refits was 2:3 (3780:5518, 85 not reported), with 91.3% of all fits being soft contact lenses (SCL). Of the SCL fits, 59.5% were spherical, 28.5% toric, 9.7% multifocal, and 2.3% cosmetic tints. Gas permeable (GP) fits were 46.6% spherical, 18.6% toric, 19.5% multifocal, and 6.6% were for orthokeratology (OK). Over the seven-year period, SCL prescribed for continuous wear (CW) increased from 3.2% to 14.3% between 2000 and 2004 and reduced to 8.1% in 2006, for all fits. The use of mid-water content (MWC) materials decreased from 34.6% to 2.7% and the use of silicone hydrogel (SH) lenses increased from 61.4% to 96.2%, for all CW fits. GP lens continuous wear increased from 0.7% to 30.6% of all GP lens fits by 2006. Daily wear (DW) of SH lenses decreased from 49.6% (2000) to 33.7% (2004) and then increased to 86.1% in 2006, for SH fits. MWC SCL fit on a monthly planned replacement (PR) basis reduced in popularity over the seven-year period (75.0% to 39.9%) and in 2006 more patients were fit overall with SH lenses (42.9%). The use of non-PR SCL declined from 20.5% to 4.5% of all fits. Fitting of low-water content lenses also declined (15.1% to 7.0%). High-water content (5.4% to10.2%) and SH lenses (5.4% to 42.9%) both increased. By 2006, the majority of GP lenses fit were with high Dk (HDK) materials (50.3%). CONCLUSIONS: The preferred contact lens modality for Canadian optometrists appears to be DW SCL, which are replaced monthly. The proportion of lenses used for CW peaked in 2004, with SH SCL being the preferred material. The market share for GP lenses remains relatively unchanged, with an increasing proportion used for OK and CW. The launch of DW SH lenses in 2004 resulted in a marked increase in their reported fits, with a similar effect following the launch of a HDK GP lens material for CW.

Woods,C., Naroo,S., Zeri,F., Bakkar,M., Barodawala,F., Evans,V., Fadel,D., Kalikivayi,L., Lira,M., Maseedupally,V., Trave Huarte,S., Eperjesi,F. Evidence for commonly used teaching, learning and assessment methods in contact lens clinical skills education Contact Lens Anterior Eye 2023;46(2):101821 [ Show Abstract ]

Introduction
Evidence based practice is now an important part of healthcare education. The aim of this narrative literature review was to determine what evidence exists on the efficacy of commonly used teaching and learning and assessment methods in the realm of contact lens skills education (CLE) in order to provide insights into best practice. A summary of the global regulation and provision of postgraduate learning and continuing professional development in CLE is included.

Method
An expert panel of educators was recruited and completed a literature review of current evidence of teaching and learning and assessment methods in healthcare training, with an emphasis on health care, general optometry and CLE.

Results
No direct evidence of benefit of teaching and learning and assessment methods in CLE were found. There was evidence for the benefit of some teaching and learning and assessment methods in other disciplines that could be transferable to CLE and could help students meet the intended learning outcomes. There was evidence that the following teaching and learning methods helped health-care and general optometry students meet the intended learning outcomes; clinical teaching and learning, flipped classrooms, clinical skills videos and clerkships. For assessment these methods were; essays, case presentations, objective structured clinical examinations, self-assessment and formative assessment. There was no evidence that the following teaching and learning methods helped health-care and general optometry students meet the intended learning outcomes; journal clubs and case discussions. Nor was any evidence found for the following assessment methods; multiple-choice questions, oral examinations, objective structured practical examinations, holistic assessment, and summative assessment.

Conclusion
Investigation into the efficacy of common teaching and learning and assessment methods in CLE are required and would be beneficial for the entire community of contact lens educators, and other disciplines that wish to adapt this approach of evidence-based teaching.

Woods,J., Guthrie,S. E., Keir,N., Dillehay,S., Tyson,M., Griffin,R., Choh,V., Fonn,D., Jones,L., Irving,E. Inhibition of defocus-induced myopia in chickens Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 2013;54(4):2662-2668 [ Show Abstract ]

PURPOSE. To determine the effect of wearing a lens with a unique peripheral optical design on the development and progression of defocus-induced myopia in newly hatched chickens.METHODS. Eighty-five newly hatched chickens underwent bilateral retinoscopy and A-scan ultrasound to determine their refractive error and axial length. They were randomly divided into Control and two Test groups, in which each chicken was fitted with a goggle-lens over the right eye, with the left eye remaining untreated. The Control group wore a lens of power - 10.00 diopters (D) of standard spherical optical design. The two Test lenses both had a central optical power -10.00 D, but used different peripheral myopia progression control (MPC) designs. For all groups, retinoscopy was repeated on days 3, 7, 10, and 14; ultrasound was repeated on day 14.RESULTS. On day 0 there was no statistical difference in refractive error (mean +6.92 D) or axial length (mean 8.06 mm) between Test and Control groups or treated and untreated eyes (all P > 0.05). At day 14, 37 (43.5%) of 85 chickens had not experienced goggle detachment and were included in the final analyses. In this cohort there was a significant refractive difference between the treated eyes of the Control group (n = 17) and those of Test 1 (n = 14) and Test 2 (n = 6) groups (both P < 0.01): Control -4.65 ± 2.11 D, Test 1 +4.57 ± 3.11 D, Test 2 +1.08 ± 1.24 D (mean ± SEM). There was also a significant axial length difference (both P < 0.01): Control 10.55 ± 0.36 mm, Test 1 9.99 ± 0.14 mm, Test 2 10.17 ± 0.18 mm.CONCLUSIONS. Use of these unique MPC lens designs over 14 days caused a significant reduction in the development of defocus-induced myopia in chickens; the degree of reduction appeared to be design specific. © 2013 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

Woods,J., Hutchings,N., Srinivasan,S., Jones,L. Geographic distribution of corneal staining in symptomatic dry eye Ocul Surf 2019;18(2):258-266 [ Show Abstract ]

Purpose
To describe the geographic distribution of corneal fluorescein staining across the five corneal zones, among non contact lens wearers who report symptoms of dry eye and determine which corneal zone most frequently exhibited the worst staining.

Methods
Prior studies conducted at the Centre for Ocular Research & Education, Canada, were reviewed for inclusion in the analysis. Each study assessed dry eye symptoms using OSDI and also assessed corneal fluorescein staining in five corneal zones. For each subject, the corneal zones were ranked 1–5 according to their relative staining grade, Rank-1 representing the highest grade.

Results
Data from 13 studies and 368 subjects were included. The total number of zones assigned Rank-1 (worst) staining was 449 (across 264 subjects). The inferior zone had the most Rank-1 counts of all zones at 193/43%, which involved 52.5% of all subjects. The nasal zone had 77/17% involving 20.9% of subjects, followed by the temporal (69/15.5%, 18.8% subjects) and superior zones (63/14%, 17.1% subjects). The central zone had the lowest count of Rank-1 designations, at only 47/10.5%, involving 12.8% of subjects. Bayesian analysis was used to generate distributions of the credible proportions of subjects likely to present with staining in a single peripheral zone, with or without central zone staining. It illustrated that staining in a peripheral zone without central staining was more credible. The worst single zone staining was most likely to present in the inferior zone (67.9%), followed by the nasal zone (11.3%), the superior zone (9.2%), and the temporal zone (5.6%).

Conclusion
In the presence of dry eye symptoms, the inferior zone typically presents the most severe grade of corneal staining, more likely without central zone staining. This knowledge is valuable when developing a strategy to treat dry eye signs, as the inferior corneal zone has the highest grade of staining thus has the potential to exhibit the greatest reduction in staining post-treatment.

Woods,J., Jones,D., Jones,L., Jones,S., Hunt,C., Chamberlain,P., McNally,J Ocular health of children wearing daily disposable contact lenses over a 6-year period Contact Lens Anterior Eye 2021;44(4):101391 [ Show Abstract ]

Purpose
To report on the ocular health and safety of children fit with soft hydrogel daily-disposable contact lenses, and followed for 6-years in a double-masked clinical trial investigating the performance of a dual-focus contact lens designed to control myopia progression.

Methods
Children aged 8−12 years, naïve to contact lens wear, were enrolled across four international sites. During years 1–3, children were randomised to either MiSight® 1 day or Proclear® 1 day (both omafilcon A, CooperVision, Inc.). The lenses were identical in material and geometry except for the front optical zone design. At the end of year-3, all those wearing Proclear 1 day were switched to MiSight 1 day, therefore all wore MiSight 1 day in years 4−6. Subjects agreed to wear the lenses at least 10-hours/day, 6-days/week. After dispensing, study visits were at 1-week, 1-month, 6-months and every 6-months until 6-years. At each visit, ocular measurements and subjective responses were recorded. Biomicroscopy used 0–4 grading scales; grade 0 represented no findings.

Results
144 children were enrolled: 69F:75M; mean age 10.1 years; mean cycloplegic spherical-equivalent refraction -2.11D; ethnicities included 34 East-Asian, 12 West-Asian, and 79 Caucasian. 92 completed the 6-years. Only three subjects discontinued due to an ocular adverse event (AE). No contact lens related AEs were classified as serious. The incidence rate of infiltrative AEs was 0.61% (6.1/1000 wearing-years; 95%CI: 0.24%–1.57%). The most common biomicroscopy findings were limbal, bulbar and tarsal hyperaemia and tarsal roughness. 99% of all biomicroscopy findings were grade-1 or lower. After 6-years of lens wear, ocular health by biomicroscopy was similar to pre-lens wear.

Conclusions
Across the 6-years, there were no contact lens related serious AEs and biomicroscopy showed no significant changes. Results suggest that children this age can successfully wear daily-disposable hydrogel contact lenses with minimal impact on ocular physiology.

Woods,J., Jones,L. W. Pilot study to determine the effect of lens and eye rinsing on Solution-Induced Corneal Staining (SICS) Optometry and Vision Science 2016;93(10):1218-1227 [ Show Abstract ]

Purpose The main purpose of this study was to determine whether two interventions (rinsing the lens before lens insertion and rinsing the ocular surface post-lens removal) had any impact on solution-induced corneal staining (SICS). In addition, the presence of hyper-reflective epithelial cells in the presence of SICS was investigated. Methods Twenty subjects wore new balafilcon A lenses, which had been soaked overnight in a multipurpose care product containing polyhexamethylene biguanide for 2 hours. The study was conducted across three phases. In phase 1 (investigator and subject masked, randomized eye), one lens was rinsed with nonpreserved saline before lens insertion. In phase 2 (investigator masked, randomized eye), one eye was rinsed with nonpreserved saline after lens removal, before staining assessment. Corneal staining was recorded as the percentage area of the cornea exhibiting superficial punctate staining. In both phases, ocular comfort and presence of specific symptoms were captured. In phase 3, there was no randomized treatment; confocal images of the epithelium were obtained after 2 hours of wear. Results In phase 1 (lens-rinse), there was no significant difference in staining between the treated and untreated eyes (84 vs. 92%, respectively; p = 0.06). In phase 2 (eye-rinse), there was also no significant difference between the treated and untreated eye (86 vs. 86%, p = 0.92). Most subjects were asymptomatic. In phase 3, images of hyper-reflective cells were captured in 97% of the eyes imaged. Conclusions The two rinsing procedures did not affect the level of the SICS response. Hyper-reflective epithelial cells were found to be present in a significant number of eyes exhibiting SICS, and their presence warrants further investigation. © 2016 American Academy of Optometry.